I-Cryptocurrency: qaphela ubungozi bokuhambisana

Isingeniso

Emphakathini wethu ovela ngokushesha, i-cryptocurrency iya ngokuya ithandwa. Njengamanje, kunezinhlobo eziningi ze-cryptocurrency, njengeBitcoin, Ethereum, neLitecoin. Ama-Cryptocurrensets ayedijithali kuphela, kanti imali kanye nobuchwepheshe zigcinwa ziphephile ngokusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe be-blockchain. Lobu buchwepheshe bugcina irekhodi elivikelekile lokuthengiselana ngakunye endaweni eyodwa. Akekho olawula i-blockchain njengoba la maketeni enqunyelwe kuyo yonke ikhompyutha enesikhwama se-cryptocurrency. Ubuchwepheshe beBlockchain bunikezela ngokungaziwa kwabasebenzisi be-cryptocurrency. Ukuntuleka kokulawula nokungaziwa kwabasebenzisi kungafaka ubungozi obuthile kosomabhizinisi abafuna ukusebenzisa i-cryptocurrency enkampanini yabo. Le ndatshana ingukuqhubeka kwendatshana yethu yangaphambilini, 'I-Cryptocurrency: izici zomthetho zezobuchwepheshe eziguqukayo'. Ngenkathi le ndatshana yangaphambilini isondela kakhulu ezicini zomthetho ezijwayelekile ze-cryptocurrency, lo mbhalo ugxile ezingcupheni abanikazi bebhizinisi abangabhekana nazo lapho bebhekene ne-cryptocurrency nokubaluleka kokuhambisana.

Ingozi yokusolwa ngokudonswa kwemali

Ngenkathi i-cryptocurrency ithola ukuthandwa, isalawulwa eNetherlands nakwamanye amazwe aseYurophu. Izishayamthetho zisebenzela ukwenza imigomo enemininingwane, kepha lokhu kuzoba inqubo ende. Kodwa-ke, izinkantolo zikazwelonke zaseDashi sezidlulise izinqumo eziningana kumacala aphathelene ne-cryptocurrency. Yize izinqumo ezimbalwa bezithinta isimo sezomthetho se-cryptocurrency, amacala amaningi ayephakathi kobubanzi bobugebengu. Ukwebiwa kwemali kubambe iqhaza elikhulu kulezi zinqumo.

Ukwebiwa kwemali kuyisici okufanele sibhekelwe ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi inhlangano yakho ayiwele ngaphansi kwekhodi yeDutch Criminal Code. Ukuphanga imali isenzo esijeziswayo ngaphansi komthetho wobulelesi waseDashi. Lokhu kusungulwe emibhalweni engu-420bis, 420ter no-420 ye-Dutch Criminal Code. Ukwebiwa kwemali kufakazelwa lapho umuntu efihla imvelo uqobo, imvelaphi, ukuqothuka noma ukuhlakazwa kokuthile okuhle, noma efihla ukuthi ngubani ozuzayo noma ophethe okuhle ngenkathi azi ukuthi okuhle kususelwa emisebenzini yobugebengu. Ngisho nalapho umuntu ebengazi ngokusobala ukuthi iqiniso lisuselwa emisebenzini yobugebengu kodwa ubengacabanga kahle ukuthi yilokhu, angatholakala enecala lokusebenzisa imali. Lezi zenzo zijeziswa ngokuboshwa kuze kube iminyaka emine (ngokwazi umsuka wobugebengu), ukuboshwa kuze kube unyaka owodwa (ngokuba nomqondo ofanele) noma inhlawulo efinyelela ku-67.000 euro. Lokhu kusungulwe ku-athikili 23 ye-Dutch Criminal Code. Umuntu owenza umkhuba wokusebenzisa imali angaboshwa ngisho kuze kube yiminyaka eyisithupha.

Ngezansi kwezibonelo ezimbalwa lapho izinkantolo zamaDashi zidlulise ukusetshenziswa kwe-cryptocurrency:

  • Kwakunecala lapho umuntu asolwa ngokuhlukumeza imali. Wathola imali eyayitholwa ngokuguqula ama-bitcoins abe imali ye-fiat. Lawa ma-bitcoins atholakala kuwebhu emnyama, lapho kufihlwa khona amakheli we-IP wabasebenzisi. Uphenyo lubonise ukuthi iwebhu emnyama isetshenziswa cishe kuphela ngokuthengisa izimpahla ezingekho emthethweni, okumele zikhokhwe ngama-bitcoins. Ngakho-ke, inkantolo ecabanga ukuthi ama-bitcoins atholakala kuwebhu omnyama ayimvelaphi yobugebengu. Inkantolo ithe umsolwa uthole imali eyayitholwa ngokuguqula ama-bitcoins emvelaphi yobugebengu abe yimali ye-fiat. Umsolwa wayazi ukuthi ama-bitcoins ajwayele ukuvela ebugebengwini. Noma kunjalo, akazange aphenye ngemvelaphi yemali ye-fiat ayitholile. Ngakho-ke, wamukele ngamabomu ithuba elibalulekile lokuthi imali ayitholile yatholakala ngemisebenzi engekho emthethweni. Walahlwa yicala lokusebenzisa imali. [1]
  • Kulokhu, abakwaFiscal Information and Investigation Service (ngesiDashi: FIOD) baqale uphenyo kubahwebi be-bitcoin. Umsolwa, kulokhu, uhlinzeka abathengisi futhi wabashintsha baba imali. Umsolwa usebenzise i-wallet online lapho bekubekwe khona ama-bitcoins amaningi, okuvela kuwebhu emnyama. Njengoba kushiwo ecaleni elingehla, la ma-bitcoins acatshangelwa ukuthi avela ngokungemthetho. Umsolwa wenqabile ukucacisa mayelana nemvelaphi yama-bitcoins. Inkantolo ithe umsolwa uyazi kahle imvelaphi yama-bitco engekho emthethweni njengoba aye kubathengisi abaqinisekisa ukungaziwa kwamakhasimende abo babuze nekhomishini ephezulu yale nkonzo. Ngakho-ke, inkantolo yathi injongo yomsolwa ingathathwa. Walahlwa yicala lokusebenzisa imali. [2]
  • Icala elilandelayo liphathelene nebhange laseDashi, i-IN. I-IN yangena kwinkontileka yasebhange nomhwebi we-bitcoin. Njengebhange, i-ING inezibopho ezithile zokuqapha nokuphenya. Bathola iklayenti labo lisebenzisa imali eyimali ukuthenga ama-bitcoins kubantu besithathu. I-ING yaqeda ubudlelwano bayo njengoba imvelaphi yezinkokhelo zemali ingeke ihlolwe futhi imali kungenzeka ukuthi itholakale ngemisebenzi engekho emthethweni. I-IN yazizwa sengathi ayisakwazi ukufeza izibopho zayo ze-KYC njengoba ihluleka nokuqinisekisa ukuthi ama-akhawunti ayo awasetshenziswanga lapho kudayiswa khona imali futhi igwema nobungozi maqondana nobuqotho. Inkantolo ithe iklayenti le-IN alanele ekuboniseni ukuthi imali eyisikhwama yayivela emthethweni. Ngakho-ke, i-ING yavunyelwa ukuqeda ubudlelwano bebhange. [3]

Lezi zinqumo zibonisa ukuthi ukusebenza ne-cryptocurrency kungabeka engcupheni uma kuziwa ekulandeleni. Lapho imvelaphi ye-cryptocurrency ingaziwa, futhi imali ingahle ithathwe kuwebhu emnyama, izinsolo zokuxhaphaza imali zingavela kalula.

Compliance

Njengoba i-cryptocurrency ingalawulwa futhi kungaziwa ekuhwebeni okwenziwayo, kuyindlela ekhangayo yokukhokha esetshenziselwa imisebenzi yobugebengu. Ngakho-ke, i-cryptocurrency inezinhlobo ezithile zokuxhuma okungalungile eNetherlands. Lokhu kuphinde kukhonjiswe eqinisweni lokuthi i-Dutch Financial Services kanye ne-Markets Authority leluleka ngokuhweba ngezimali ze-cryptocurrencies. Besho ukuthi ukusebenzisa ama-cryptocurrensets kubeka ubungozi maqondana namacala omnotho, ngoba ukuxhaphaza imali, inkohliso, ukukhwabanisa nokukhohlisa kungaqhamuka kalula. [4] Lokhu kusho ukuthi kufanele unembe kakhulu ngokuhambisana lapho ubhekene ne-cryptocurrency. Kufanele ukwazi ukukhombisa ukuthi i-cryptocurrency oyitholayo ayitholwa ngemisebenzi engekho emthethweni. Kufanele ukwazi ukufakazela ukuthi uphenye ngempela umsuka we-cryptocurrency oyitholile. Lokhu kungakhombisa ukuthi kunzima kubantu abasebenzisa i-cryptocurrency kaningi engazwakali. Kaningi, lapho inkantolo yaseDashi inesinqumo esiphathelene ne-cryptocurrency, kuba ngaphakathi kobubi bobugebengu. Okwamanje, abaphathi abakubheki ngentshiseko ukuhweba kuma-cryptocurrencies. Noma kunjalo, i-cryptocurrency inokunaka kwabo. Ngakho-ke, lapho inkampani inobudlelwano ne-cryptocurrency, iziphathimandla ziyobe ziqwashiswa ngokwengeziwe. Iziphathimandla cishe zizofuna ukwazi ukuthi i-cryptocurrency itholakala kanjani nokuthi umsuka wemali uyini. Uma ungakwazi ukuphendula le mibuzo kahle, izinsolo zokuphangwa kwemali noma amanye amacala obugebengu kungavela futhi kungaqalwa uphenyo oluphathelene nenhlangano yakho.

Ukulawulwa kwe-cryptocurrency

Njengoba kushiwo ngenhla, i-cryptocurrency ayikalawulwa. Kodwa-ke, ukuhweba nokusetshenziswa kwama-cryptocurrencies cishe kuzolawulwa ngokuqinile, ngenxa yobungozi bobugebengu kanye nezezimali okubandakanya ama-cryptocurrency. Ukulawulwa kwe-cryptocurrency yisihloko sengxoxo emhlabeni wonke jikelele. I-International Monetary Fund (inhlangano yeZizwe Ezihlangene esebenza ngokusebenzisana kwezimali emhlabeni wonke, ukuthola ukuzinza kwezezimali kanye nokwenza lula ukuhwebelana kwamazwe omhlaba) ifuna ukubambisana komhlaba wonke kuma-cryptocurrencies njengoba kuxwayise ngazo zombili izingozi zezezimali nezobugebengu. [5] I-European Union ipikisana ngokuthi ingalawula noma ibhekele ama-cryptocurrencies, noma engakayenzi imithetho ethile. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukulawulwa kwe-cryptocurrency kuyindaba yokuxoxisana emazweni ambalwa, njenge China, South-Korea, neRussia. Lawa mazwe athatha noma afuna ukuthatha izinyathelo zokusungula imithetho ephathelene ne-cryptocurrensets. ENetherlands, i-Financial Services and Markets Authority iveze ukuthi amafemu okutshala imali anomsebenzi ojwayelekile wokunakekelwa lapho enikeza abakwa-Bitcoin-ikusasa kubathengisi bezimali eNetherlands. Lokhu kufaka ukuthi amafemu wokutshala imali kufanele anakekele intshisekelo yamakhasimende abo ngendlela esezingeni elifanele, engenacala nethembekile. [6] Ingxoxo yomhlaba wonke mayelana nokulawulwa kwe-cryptocurrency ikhombisa ukuthi izinhlangano eziningi zicabanga ukuthi kubalulekile ukusungula okungenani uhlobo oluthile lomthetho.

Isiphetho

Kuphephile ukusho ukuthi i-cryptocurrency iyanda. Kodwa-ke, abantu babonakala bakhohlwa ukuthi ukuhweba nokusebenzisa lezi zimali nakho kungafaka ubungozi obuthile. Ngaphambi kokuthi uyazi, ungahle uwele ngaphansi kwekhodi yeDutch Criminal Code lapho usebenza ne-cryptocurrency. Lezi zimali zivame ukuhlotshaniswa nemisebenzi yezobugebengu, ikakhulukazi imali. Ukuthobela umthetho ngakho-ke kubaluleke kakhulu ezinkampanini ezingafuni ukushushiswa ngamacala obugebengu. Ukwazi ngomsuka we-cryptocurrencies kudlala indima enkulu kulokhu. Njengoba i-cryptocurrency inokuthile okungasho lutho okungatheni, amazwe nezinhlangano ziphikisana ngokuthi cha noma cha ukumisa imithetho ephathelene ne-cryptocurrency. Yize amanye amazwe esezithathile izinyathelo zomthethonqubo, kusengathatha isikhathi ngaphambi kokuba umthetho womhlaba wonke ufinyelelwe. Ngakho-ke, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi izinkampani ziqaphele lapho zibhekene ne-cryptocurrency futhi uqiniseke ukuthi unaka ukuthobela.

Contact

Uma unemibuzo noma ukuphawula ngemuva kokufunda le ndatshana, sicela ukhululeke ukuxhumana noMaxim Hodak, ummeli kammeli ku- Law & More nge-maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, noma uTom Meevis, ummeli-mthetho ku Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBMNE:2017:5716.

[2] ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:8992.

[3] ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376, https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBAMS:2017:8376.

[4] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'Reële cryptocurrencies, https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/nov/risico-cryptocurrencies.

[5] Bika Izinsizakalo zeFintech nezezimali: Ukucatshangelwa kokuqala, Isikhwama Sezimali Zwamazwe Ngamazwe 2017.

[6] Autoriteit Financiële Markten, 'I-Bitcoin futures: AFM op', https://www.afm.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/dec/bitcoin-futures-zorgplicht.

Ungahlukıselana