I-Cryptocurrency: I-EU ne-Dutch Legal Aspects ye-Revolutionary Technology

Isingeniso

Ukwanda komhlaba wonke nokwanda okuthe xaxa kwe-cryptocurrency kuholele kwimibuzo mayelana nezici zokulawula zalesi simo esisha sezezimali. Izimali ezisetshenziswayo zibukeka zedijithali futhi zihlelwe ngenethiwekhi eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-blockchain, okuyi-ledger eku-inthanethi egcina irekhodi elilondekile lokuthengiselana ngakunye endaweni eyodwa. Ayikho Izilawuli eyodwa blockchain, ngoba kwalezi zibopho kuthiwa usabalalise yonkana wonke amakhompuyutha ukuthi has a isikhwama Bitcoin. Lokhu kusho ukuthi asikho isikhungo esisodwa esilawula inethiwekhi, okusho ngokwemvelo ukuba khona kwezingozi eziningi zezezimali nezomthetho.

Ukuqala kweBlockchain kumukele ama-Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) njengendlela yokukhulisa imali yokuqala. I-ICO ngumnikelo lapho inkampani ingathengisela khona amathokheni edijithali emphakathini ukuze ixhase imisebenzi futhi ihlangabezane nezinye izinjongo zebhizinisi. [1] Futhi ICOs kungukuthi ilawulwa imithetho eqondile noma eminyangweni kahulumeni. Lokhu kushoda komthethonqubo kuphakamise ukukhathazeka mayelana nobungozi obungahle bube khona abatshalizimali abasebenza. Ngenxa yalokho, simo esishubile sekuyiyona nto eyinhloko abakhathazeka. Ngeshwa, uma umtshali wemali uyobe ilahlekelwa izimali phakathi kule nqubo, awunabo zilandele izilinganiso ezithile inkambo ukuze siphinde sithole imali elahlekile.

I-Cryptocurrency - i-EU ne-Dutch Legal Aspects ye-Revolutionary Technology

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Zezimali Virtual lesikuLizinga European

Ubungozi obuhambisana nokusetshenziswa kwemali ebonakalayo kuphakamisa isidingo se-European Union kanye nezikhungo zayo zokulawula. Kodwa-ke, izimiso ezisezingeni le-European Union ziyinkimbinkimbi impela, ngenxa yokushintsha kwezinhlaka zokulawula ze-EU kanye nokungahambisani okulawulayo kuwo wonke amazwe angamalungu.

Ngokuqondene nezimali ezisetshenziswayo manje azilawulwa ezingeni le-EU futhi aziqondisi noma zigadwe yiliphi igunya lomphakathi we-EU, noma ngabe ukubamba iqhaza kulezi zinhlelo kudalula abasebenzisi ezikweletini, ezikweletini, ezinobungozi kanye nezomthetho. Lokhu kusho ukuthi abaphathi bakazwelonke badinga ukubheka ukuthi ngabe bahlose ukuvuma noma ukwenza ngokusemthethweni futhi balawule i-cryptocurrency.

Imali Yezimali eNetherlands

Ngokwe-Dutch lwezezimali Ukugada Act (FSA) nemali electronic simele zibiza malini ukuthi lilondolozwe ngekhompyutha noma ngokudonseka. Leli nani lezezimali lihloselwe ukusetshenziselwa ukwenza izinkokhelo futhi lingasetshenziselwa ukukhokha amanye amaqembu kunaleyo ekhiphe imali ye-elekthronikhi. [2] zezimali Virtual ayikwazi kuchazwe nemali electronic, ngoba akubona bonke nenqubo yezomthetho ifinyelelwe. Uma i-cryptocurrency ingeke ichazwe ngokusemthethweni njengemali noma imali ye-elekthronikhi, ingachazwa kanjani? Ngokwesimo se-Dutch Financial Supervision Act i-cryptocurrency imane nje iyindawo yokushintshana. Wonke umuntu abe nenkululeko yokuphinde bahlanganyele ukuhweba ngempahla, Ngakho-ke imvume ngohlobo ilayisensi ayidingekile. UNgqongqoshe Wezezimali waveza ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwencazelo esemthethweni esemthethweni ngemali ye-elekthronikhi akukafiseleki kangako, uma kunikezwe umkhawulo we-bitcoin, izinga eliphansi lokwamukelwa, kanye nobudlelwano obulinganiselwe emnothweni wangempela. Wagcizelela ukuthi umthengi onesibophezelo sanoma ukusetshenziswa kwazo. [3]

Ngokusho kweNkantolo yesiFunda saseDashi (i-Overijssel) kanye noNgqongqoshe Wezimali waseDashi imali esetshenziswayo, efana neBitcoin, inesimo esiphakathi sokushintshana. [4] Ukhala eNkantolo Dutch kubhekwe ukuthi bitcoins kungaba wafanelekela izinto ithengiswe njengoba kubhekiselwe kuyo sihloko 7:36 DCC. INkantolo yokuDluliswa kwamaDatshi ibuye yasho ukuthi ama-bitcoins angeke akwazi ukuthola ithenda lezomthetho kodwa njengendlela yokushintshana. Ngokuphambene nalokho, iNkantolo Yobulungiswa YaseYurophu yanquma ukuthi ama-bitcoins kufanele aphathwe njengendlela yokukhokha, okuphakamisa ukuthi kungaqondile ama-bitcoins afane nethenda esemthethweni. [5]

Isiphetho

Ngenxa eyinkimbinkimbi okubandakanya ukulawulwa cryptocurrencies, kungaba bazitshela ukuthi Court of Justice EU kuyodingeka ihileleke ukucaciswa amagama. Uma amazwe angamalungu ekhethe ukuguqula amagama asetshenziswa ngendlela ehlukile kumthetho we-EU, kungaqubuka ubunzima maqondana nokuhunyushwa ngokuhambisana nomthetho we-EU. Kule ngombono, kubalulekile ukuncoma United Member ukuthi they landela EU komthetho amagama ngenkathi zisebenzise umthetho umthetho kazwelonke.

Uhlobo oluphelele lwaleli phepha elimhlophe luyatholakala ngalesi sixhumanisi.

Contact

Uma unemibuzo noma imibono ngemuva kokufunda le ndatshana, sicela ukhululeke ukuxhumana nomnumzane. UMaxim Hodak, ummeli-womthetho ku- Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or mr. Tom Meevis, attorney-at-law at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] C. Bovaird, ICO vs IPO: Uyini Umehluko?, I-Bitcoin Market Journal september 2017.

[2] Umthetho Wezokulawulwa Kwezezimali, isigaba 1: 1

[3] U-Ministerie van Ezezimali, Beantwoording van kamervragen over het gebruik van en to toichicht op nieuwe digitale betaalmiddelen zoals de bitcoin, Disemba 2013.

[4] ECLI: NL: RBOVE: 2014: 2667.

[5] ECLI: EU: C: 2015: 718.

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