I-Cryptocurrency: I-EU ne-Dutch Legal Aspects ye-Revolutionary Technology

Isingeniso

Ukwanda komhlaba wonke nokwanda okuthe xaxa kwe-cryptocurrency kuholele kwimibuzo mayelana nezici zokulawula zalesi simo esisha sezezimali. Izimali ezisetshenziswayo zibukeka zedijithali futhi zihlelwe ngenethiwekhi eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-blockchain, okuyi-ledger eku-inthanethi egcina irekhodi elilondekile lokuthengiselana ngakunye endaweni eyodwa. Ayikho Izilawuli eyodwa blockchain, ngoba kwalezi zibopho kuthiwa usabalalise yonkana wonke amakhompuyutha ukuthi has a isikhwama Bitcoin. Lokhu kusho ukuthi asikho isikhungo esisodwa esilawula inethiwekhi, okusho ngokwemvelo ukuba khona kwezingozi eziningi zezezimali nezomthetho.

Iziqalo zeBlockchain zamukele Ukunikezwa Kwezezimali Zokuqala (ama-ICO) njengendlela yokuthola imali yokuqala. I-ICO ingumnikelo lapho inkampani ingathengisa ngamathokheni edijithali emphakathini ukuze ixhase imisebenzi futhi ihlangabezane nezinye izinhloso zebhizinisi. [1] Futhi ama-ICO awalawulwa yimithethonqubo ethile noma ama-ejensi kahulumeni. Lokhu kushoda kwemithethonqubo kuphakamise ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi ezingaba khona zabatshalizimali. Ngenxa yalokhu, ukuguquguquka kwesimo sekuyinkinga. Ngeshwa, uma umtshalizimali elahlekelwa yimali phakathi nale nqubo, abanaso isenzo esilinganiselwe sokubuyisa imali elahlekile.

I-Cryptocurrency - i-EU ne-Dutch Legal Aspects ye-Revolutionary Technology

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Zezimali Virtual lesikuLizinga European

Ubungozi obuhambisana nokusetshenziswa kwemali ebonakalayo kuphakamisa isidingo se-European Union kanye nezikhungo zayo zokulawula. Kodwa-ke, izimiso ezisezingeni le-European Union ziyinkimbinkimbi impela, ngenxa yokushintsha kwezinhlaka zokulawula ze-EU kanye nokungahambisani okulawulayo kuwo wonke amazwe angamalungu.

Ngokuqondene nezimali ezisetshenziswayo manje azilawulwa ezingeni le-EU futhi aziqondisi noma zigadwe yiliphi igunya lomphakathi we-EU, noma ngabe ukubamba iqhaza kulezi zinhlelo kudalula abasebenzisi ezikweletini, ezikweletini, ezinobungozi kanye nezomthetho. Lokhu kusho ukuthi abaphathi bakazwelonke badinga ukubheka ukuthi ngabe bahlose ukuvuma noma ukwenza ngokusemthethweni futhi balawule i-cryptocurrency.

Imali Yezimali eNetherlands

Ngokwe-Dutch Financial Supervision Act (FSA) imali ye-elektroniki imele inani lemali eligcinwa ngogesi noma ngozibuthe. Leli nani lemali kuhloswe ngalo ukuthi lisetshenziselwe ukwenza ukuthengiselana kokukhokha futhi lingasetshenziselwa ukwenza izinkokhelo kwamanye amaqembu kunaleyo ekhiphe imali ye-elekthronikhi. [2] Izimali ezibonakalayo azikwazi ukuchazwa njengemali ye-elekthronikhi, ngoba akuzona zonke izindlela ezisemthethweni ezihlangabezwayo. Uma i-cryptocurrency ingeke ichazwe ngokusemthethweni njengemali noma imali ye-elekthronikhi, ingachazwa kanjani? Ngokwesimo se-Dutch Financial Supervision Act i-cryptocurrency iyindlela nje yokushintshanisa. Wonke umuntu unenkululeko yokuhwebelana, ngakho-ke ayidingeki imvume enjengelayisense. UNgqongqoshe Wezezimali uveze ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwencazelo esemthethweni yemali ye-elekthronikhi akukafiseleki, uma kubhekwa isilinganiso esilinganiselwe se-bitcoin, ukwamukelwa kwezinga eliphansi, nobudlelwano obulinganiselwe nomnotho wangempela. Ugcizelele ukuthi umthengi unesibopho kuphela ekusebenziseni kwakhe. [3]

NgokweNkantolo Yesifunda SaseDashi (i-Overijssel) kanye noNgqongqoshe Wezezimali waseDashi imali ebonakalayo, efana neBitcoin, inesimo sokushintshana. [4] Ekudluliseni icala iNkantolo yaseDashi yabheka ukuthi ama-bitcoins angafaneleka njengezinto ezithengisiwe njengoba kushiwo ku-athikili 7:36 DCC. INkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yaseDashi iphinde yathi ama-bitcoins awakwazi ukufanelekela njengethenda elisemthethweni kepha kuphela njengendlela yokushintshanisa. Ngokuphambene nalokho, iNkantolo Yobulungisa YaseYurophu yanquma ukuthi ama-bitcoins kufanele aphathwe njengendlela yokukhokha, ephakamisa ngokungaqondile ukuthi ama-bitcoins afana nethenda elisemthethweni. [5]

Isiphetho

Ngenxa eyinkimbinkimbi okubandakanya ukulawulwa cryptocurrencies, kungaba bazitshela ukuthi Court of Justice EU kuyodingeka ihileleke ukucaciswa amagama. Uma amazwe angamalungu ekhethe ukuguqula amagama asetshenziswa ngendlela ehlukile kumthetho we-EU, kungaqubuka ubunzima maqondana nokuhunyushwa ngokuhambisana nomthetho we-EU. Kule ngombono, kubalulekile ukuncoma United Member ukuthi they landela EU komthetho amagama ngenkathi zisebenzise umthetho umthetho kazwelonke.

Uhlobo oluphelele lwaleli phepha elimhlophe luyatholakala ngalesi sixhumanisi.

Contact

Uma unemibuzo noma imibono ngemuva kokufunda le ndatshana, sicela ukhululeke ukuxhumana nomnumzane. UMaxim Hodak, ummeli-womthetho ku- Law & More nge maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, noma umnu. UTom Meevis, ummeli womthetho e Law & More ngetom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, noma ushayele +31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] C. Bovaird, ICO vs. IPO: Uyini Umehluko ?, I-Bitcoin Market Journal ka-Septhemba 2017.

[2] Umthetho Wokuphathwa Kwezimali, isigaba 1: 1

[3] I-Ministerie van Ezezimali, Beantwoording van kamervragen over het gebruik van en to toichicht op nieuwe digitale betaalmiddelen zoals de bitcoin, Disemba 2013.

[4] ECLI: NL: RBOVE: 2014: 2667.

[5] ECLI: EU: C: 2015: 718.

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