Isehlukaniso kanye neCustody Yomzali. Yini okudingeka uyazi?

Ngabe ushadile noma unobambiswano olubhalisiwe? Kuleso simo, umthetho wethu ususelwa kunqubo yokunakekelwa nokukhuliswa kwezingane ngabazali bobabili, ngokusho kweSigaba 1: 247 BW. Cishe izingane ezingama-60,000 zibhekana nesehlukaniso esivela kubazali bazo minyaka yonke. Kodwa-ke, ngisho nangemva kwesehlukaniso, izingane zinelungelo lokunakekelwa ngokulinganayo nokukhuliswa yibo bobabili nabazali nabazali abagcinwe ngokuhlanganyela, bayaqhubeka nokusebenzisa leli gunya ngokuhlanganyela ngokusho kweSigaba 1: 251 seDutch Civil Code. Ngokuphikisana nesikhathi esedlule, abazali ngakho-ke bahlala bephatha igunya elihlanganisiwe labazali.

Isehlukaniso kanye neCustody Yomzali. Yini okudingeka uyazi?

Ukugcinwa kwabazali kungachazwa njengamalungelo onke nezibopho abazali abanazo mayelana nokukhuliswa nokunakekelwa kwezingane zabo ezincane futhi kuhambelana nalokhu okulandelayo: umuntu womuntu osemncane, ukuphathwa kwezimpahla zakhe nokumelwa ezenzweni zombango zombili futhi ngokungakhethi. Ngokucacile, kuphathelene nesibopho sabazali sokukhulisa ubuntu, inhlala-kahle yengqondo nengokomzimba nokuphepha kwengane, okuvimbela ukusetshenziswa kwanoma yiluphi udlame lwengqondo noma lomzimba. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kusukela ngo-2009, ukunakekelwa kufaka nesibopho somzali sokwenza ngcono ukukhula kwezibopho phakathi kwengane nomunye umzali. Ngemuva kwakho konke, isishayamthetho sikubheka njengento enhle kakhulu ukuthi ingane ixhumane nabazali bayo bobabili.

Noma kunjalo, izimo zingabonakala lapho ukuqhubeka kwegunya labazali futhi ngaleyo ndlela ukuxhumana komuntu nabazali komunye wesehlukaniso kungenakwenzeka noma kungafiseleki. Kungakho iSigaba 1: 251a se-Dutch Civil Code siqukethe, ngaphandle komgomo, amathuba okucela inkantolo ukuthi inikeze umzali oyedwa ilungelo lokugcina ngokugcina ngemuva kwesehlukaniso. Ngenxa yokuthi lesi yisimo esiyingqayizivele, inkantolo izonikeza kuphela igunya labazali ngenxa yezizathu ezimbili:

  1. uma kunengozi engamukeleki yokuthi ingane ibanjeke noma ilahlwe phakathi kwabazali futhi akulindelekile ukuthi ukuthuthuka okwanele kuzotholakala esikhathini esizayo esibonakalayo, noma
  2. uma ukuguqulwa kokulondolozwa kudingekile ukuze kungenelwe ingane.

Isilinganiselo sokuqala sakhiwe emthethweni wamacala futhi kuhlolisiswa ukuthi le nqubo iyahlangabezana yini, ingumbono ongasho lutho. Isibonelo, ukuntuleka kokuxhumana okuhle phakathi kwabazali kanye nokwehluleka okulula ukulandela ukuhlelwa kokufinyelela kwabazali akusho ukuthi ngokuzenzakalelayo entshweni yengane, igunya labazali kufanele labelwe omunye wabazali.[1] Ngenkathi izicelo zokususwa kwejele elihlanganyelwe nokunikezwa ukunakekelwa kukodwa kubazali ezimweni lapho noma yiluphi uhlobo lokuxhumana lwalungekho ngokuphelele[2], kungenzeka ukuthi kube nodlame olukhulu lwasekhaya, ukugwaza, izinsongo[3] noma lapho umzali okhathalelayo evele ekhungathekile ngomunye umzali[4], banikezwa. Ngokuphathelene nenqubomgomo yesibili, ukucatshangelwa kumele kuqiniswe ngamaqiniso anele wokuthi igunya labazali abangabodwa liyadingeka izifiso ezingcono kakhulu zengane. Isibonelo salesi simiso yisimo lapho izinqumo ezibalulekile kufanele zenziwe mayelana nengane futhi nabazali abakwazi ukubonisana ngengane kusikhathi esizayo esibonakalayo futhi nokuvumela ukuthatha izinqumo kwenzeke ngokwanele nangokushesha, okuwukuthi ngokungafani nezintshisekelo zengane.[5] Sekukonke, ijaji liyenqena ukuguqula ukugcinwa okuhlanganisiwe kube yisihloko esisodwa, impela esikhathini sokuqala emva kwesehlukaniso.

Ngabe ufisa ukuba negunya lobuzali phezu kwezingane zakho zodwa emva kwesehlukaniso sakho? Kuleso simo, kufanele uqale inqubo ngokuthumela isicelo sokuthola igunya lobuzali enkantolo. Incwadi yezikhalazo kumele ibe nesizathu sokuthi kungani ufuna kuphela ukuthi ingane igcinwe. Kudingeka ummeli kule nqubo. Ummeli wakho ulungiselela isicelo, anqume ukuthi yimiphi eminye imibhalo okufanele afake futhi afake isicelo enkantolo. Uma isicelo sokugcinwa komuntu yedwa singenisiwe, omunye umzali noma abanye abathintekayo bazonikezwa ithuba lokuphendula kulesi sicelo. Kanye enkantolo, inqubo ephathelene nokunikezwa kwegunya labazali ingathatha isikhathi eside: ubuncane bezinyanga ezi-3 kuya ngaphezulu konyaka, ngokuya ngobunzima becala.

Ezimweni ezibucayi ezingathi sína, ijaji livame ukucela iBhodi Yezokunakekela Nokuvikelwa Kwezingane ukuthi yenze uphenyo futhi ikhiphe nezeluleko (ubuciko 810 isigaba 1 DCCP). Uma umkhandlu uqala uphenyo ngesicelo sejaji, lokhu kungaholela ekuthini ukubambezeleka kwezinyathelo kuqhubeke. Inhloso yophenyo olunjalo olwenziwe yiBhodi Yokunakekela Nokuvikelwa Kwezingane ukuxhasa abazali ekuxazululeni ukungqubuzana kwabo mayelana nokugcinwa kwengane ngendlela efanele ingane. Uma lokhu kungaholeli emiphumeleni kungakapheli amasonto amane umkhandlu uzoqhubeka nokuqoqa imininingwane edingekayo bese ukhipha izeluleko. Ngemuva kwalokho, inkantolo ingasenikeza noma isenqabele isicelo segunya labazali. Ijaji livame ukusifaka isicelo uma libheka ukuthi imibandela yesicelo ihlangatsheziwe, akukho ukuphikisana nesicelo sokugcinwa futhi ukunakekelwa kusizungeze ingane. Kwezinye izimo, umahluleli uzokwenqaba isicelo.

At Law & More Siyaqonda ukuthi isehlukaniso isikhathi esinzima kuwe. Ngasikhathi sinye, kuwukuhlakanipha ukucabanga ngegunya lobuzali phezu kwezingane zakho. Ukuqonda okuhle kwesimo kanye nezinketho kubalulekile. Law & More kungakusiza ekuboneni isikhundla sakho esingokomthetho futhi, uma ufisa, thatha isicelo sokuthola igunya lobuzali elilodwa ezandleni zakho. Ngabe uyazibona kwesinye sezimo ezichazwe ngenhla, ufuna ukuba wedwa umzali onakekele ingane yakho noma uneminye imibuzo? Sicela uxhumane nabameli be Law & More.

[1] HR 10 september 1999, ECLI: NL: HR: 1999: ZC2963; HR 19 april 2002, ECLI: NL: PHR: 2002: AD9143.

[2] HR 30 september 2011, ECLI: NL: HR: 2011: BQ8782.

[3] UHof 's-Hertogenbosch 1 maart 2011, ECLI: NL: GHSGR: 2011: BP6694.

[4] HR 9 juli 2010 ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM4301.

[5] IHof Amsterdam 8 augustus 2017, ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2017: 3228.

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