Amakheli e-imeyili nobubanzi be-GDPR. Imithetho ejwayelekile Yokuvikelwa Kwemininingwane

Ku-25th NgoMeyi, kuzosebenza umthetho ojwayelekile wokuvikelwa kwedatha (GDPR). Ngokufakwa kwe-GDPR, ukuvikela idatha yomuntu siqu kuya ngokuya kubalulekile. Izinkampani kufanele zibhekele imithetho engaphezulu neqinile mayelana nokuvikelwa kwemininingwane. Noma kunjalo, kuphakama imibuzo ehlukahlukene ngenxa yokufakwa kwe-GDPR. Ezinkampanini, kungahle kungacaci ukuthi iyiphi idatha ebhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu futhi iwela ngaphansi kwesilinganiso se-GDPR. Lokhu kunjalo ngamakheli e-imeyili: ingabe ikheli le-imeyili lithathwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu? Ngabe izinkampani ezisebenzisa amakheli e-imeyili zingaphansi kwe-GDPR? Le mibuzo izophendulwa kule ndatshana.

Idatha yomuntu siqu

Ukuze uphendule umbuzo wokuthi ngabe ikheli le-imeyili lithathwa njengedatha yini noma cha, igama elithi umuntu uqobo lidinga ukucaciswa. Leli gama lichazwa ku-GDPR. Ngokuya nge-athikili 4 i-GDPR, imininingwane yomuntu uqobo isho noma imiphi imininingwane ephathelene nomuntu wemvelo okhonjwe noma okhonjwa. Umuntu wemvelo okhonjwa ngumuntu ongakhonjwa, ngokuqondile noma ngokungaqondile, ngokubhekisele kusihlonzi esinjengegama, inombolo kamazisi, idatha yendawo noma okokuhlonza online. Imininingwane yomuntu uqobo isho abantu bemvelo. Ngakho-ke, imininingwane ephathelene nabantu abashonile noma izinhlaka zomthetho ayithathwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu.

Amakheli e-imeyili nobubanzi be-GDPR

Ikheli le-imeyili

Now that the definition of personal data is determined, it needs to be assed if an email address is considered to be personal data. Dutch case law indicates that email addresses could possibly be personal data, but that this is not always the case. It depends whether or not a natural person is identified or identifiable based on the email address.[1] The way persons have structured their email addresses has to be taken into account in order to determine whether the email address can be seen as personal data or not. A lot of natural persons structure their email address in such a way that the address has to be considered personal data. This is for example the case when an email address is structured in the following way: firstname.lastname@gmail.com. This email address exposes the first and last name of the natural person that uses the address. Therefore, this person can be identified based on this email address. Email addresses that are used for business activities could also contain personal data. This is the case when an e-mail address is structured in the following way: initials.lastname@nameofcompany.com. From this email address can be derived what the initials of the person using the email address are, what his last name is and where this person works. Therefore, the person using this email address is identifiable based on the email address.

An email address is not considered to be personal data when no natural person can be identified from it. This is the case when for example the following email address is used: puppy12@hotmail.com. This email address does not contain any data from which a natural person can be identified. General email addresses that are used by companies, like info@nameofcompany.com, are also not considered to be personal data. This email address does not contain any personal information from which a natural person can be identified. Moreover, the email address is not used by a natural person, but by a legal entity. Therefore, it is not considered to be personal data. From Dutch case law can be concluded that email addresses can be personal data, but this is not always the case; it depends of the structure of the email address.

Kunethuba elihle lokuthi abantu bemvelo bangakhonjwa ngekheli le-imeyili abalisebenzisayo, elenza amakheli e-imeyili idatha yomuntu siqu. Ukuze ubeke amakheli e-imeyili njengedatha yomuntu siqu, akunandaba ukuthi inkampani empeleni isebenzisa amakheli e-imeyili ukuthola abasebenzisi. Noma inkampani ingasebenzisi amakheli e-imeyili ngenhloso yokuhlonza abantu bemvelo, amakheli e-imeyili lapho abantu bemvelo bekhonjwa khona asathathwa njengamininingwane yomuntu uqobo. Akuwona wonke uxhumano lobuchwepheshe noma obumbene phakathi komuntu nedatha eyanele ukuze kuqokwe idatha njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Kodwa-ke, uma kungenzeka ukuthi amakheli e-imeyili angasetshenziselwa ukukhomba abasebenzisi, ngokwesibonelo ukuthola amacala okukhwabanisa, amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Kulokhu, akunandaba ukuthi inkampani ihlose ukusebenzisa amakheli e-imeyili ngale njongo. Umthetho ukhuluma ngemininingwane yomuntu uma kungenzeka ukuthi idatha ingasetshenziswa ngenhloso ekhomba umuntu wemvelo. [2]

Imininingwane yomuntu ekhethekile

Ngenkathi amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu esikhathini esiningi, ayiyona idatha yomuntu siqu ekhethekile. Idatha yomuntu siqu ekhethekile yedatha yomuntu siqu eveza imvelaphi yobuhlanga noma yobuzwe, imibono yezombusazwe, izinkolelo zenkolo noma zefilosofi noma ubulungu bohwebo, nedatha yofuzo noma ye-biometric. Lokhu kuvela kusuka ku-athikili 9 GDPR. Futhi, ikheli le-imeyili liqukethe imininingwane emincane yomphakathi kuneyakheli ikheli lekhaya. Kunzima ngokwengeziwe ukuthola ulwazi ngekheli le-imeyili lomuntu othile kunekheli lakhe lekhaya futhi kuncike engxenyeni enkulu yomsebenzisi wekheli le-imeyili ukuthi ngabe ikheli le-imeyili lenziwa emphakathini noma cha. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukutholwa kwekheli le-imeyili obekumele kuhlala kufihliwe, kunemiphumela emibi kakhulu kunokutholwa kwekheli lasekhaya obekufanele lifihlwe. Kulula ukushintsha ikheli le-imeyili kunekheli lasekhaya nokutholwa kwekheli le-imeyili kungaholela ekuxhumaneni kwedijithali, ngenkathi ukutholwa kwekheli lasekhaya kungaholela ekuxhumaneni komuntu siqu. [3]

Icubungula idatha yomuntu siqu

Sithole ukuthi amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu esikhathini esiningi. Noma kunjalo, i-GDPR isebenza kuphela ezinkampanini ezenza idatha yomuntu siqu. Ukucutshungulwa kwemininingwane yomuntu siqu kukhona zonke izinto eziphathelene nedatha yomuntu siqu. Lokhu kuchazwa futhi ku-GDPR. Ngokuya nge-athikili 4 sub 2 GDPR, ukucubungulwa kwemininingwane yomuntu uqobo kusho noma yikuphi ukusebenza okwenziwa kwidatha yomuntu siqu, noma ngabe kungenziwa ngokuzenzakalelayo. Izibonelo ukuqoqwa, ukuqoshwa, ukuhlelwa, ukuhlelwa, ukugcinwa nokusetshenziswa kwemininingwane yomuntu uqobo. Lapho izinkampani zenza imisebenzi esele ichaziwe maqondana namakheli e-imeyili, zisebenza ngemininingwane yomuntu uqobo. Uma kunjalo, zingaphansi kwe-GDPR.

Isiphetho

Akuwona wonke amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Kodwa-ke, amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu uma anikezela ngemininingwane ekhonjwa ngomuntu wemvelo. Kunamakheli amaningi e-imeyili ahlelwe ngendlela umuntu ongokwemvelo osebenzisa ikheli le-imeyili angabonakala ngayo. Lokhu kunjalo lapho ikheli le-imeyili liqukethe igama noma indawo yomsebenzi womuntu wemvelo. Ngakho-ke, amakheli amaningi e-imeyili azobhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Kunzima ezinkampanini ukwenza umehluko phakathi kwamakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu namakheli e-imeyili angewona, ngoba lokhu kuncike ngokuphelele ekwakhiweni kwekheli le-imeyili. Ngakho-ke, kuphephile ukusho ukuthi izinkampani ezenza idatha yomuntu siqu, zizothola amakheli e-imeyili athathwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Lokhu kusho ukuthi lezi zinkampani zingaphansi kwe-GDPR futhi kufanele zisebenzise inqubomgomo yobumfihlo ehambisana ne-GDPR.

[1] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2002: AE5514.

[2] IKamerstukken II 1979/80, 25 892, 3 (MvT).

[3] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2002: AE5514.

Ungahlukıselana