Amakheli e-imeyili nobubanzi be-GDPR. Imithetho ejwayelekile Yokuvikelwa Kwemininingwane

Ku-25th NgoMeyi, kuzosebenza umthetho ojwayelekile wokuvikelwa kwedatha (GDPR). Ngokufakwa kwe-GDPR, ukuvikela idatha yomuntu siqu kuya ngokuya kubalulekile. Izinkampani kufanele zibhekele imithetho engaphezulu neqinile mayelana nokuvikelwa kwemininingwane. Noma kunjalo, kuphakama imibuzo ehlukahlukene ngenxa yokufakwa kwe-GDPR. Ezinkampanini, kungahle kungacaci ukuthi iyiphi idatha ebhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu futhi iwela ngaphansi kwesilinganiso se-GDPR. Lokhu kunjalo ngamakheli e-imeyili: ingabe ikheli le-imeyili lithathwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu? Ngabe izinkampani ezisebenzisa amakheli e-imeyili zingaphansi kwe-GDPR? Le mibuzo izophendulwa kule ndatshana.

Idatha yomuntu siqu

Ukuze uphendule umbuzo wokuthi ngabe ikheli le-imeyili lithathwa njengedatha yini noma cha, igama elithi umuntu uqobo lidinga ukucaciswa. Leli gama lichazwa ku-GDPR. Ngokuya nge-athikili 4 i-GDPR, imininingwane yomuntu uqobo isho noma imiphi imininingwane ephathelene nomuntu wemvelo okhonjwe noma okhonjwa. Umuntu wemvelo okhonjwa ngumuntu ongakhonjwa, ngokuqondile noma ngokungaqondile, ngokubhekisele kusihlonzi esinjengegama, inombolo kamazisi, idatha yendawo noma okokuhlonza online. Imininingwane yomuntu uqobo isho abantu bemvelo. Ngakho-ke, imininingwane ephathelene nabantu abashonile noma izinhlaka zomthetho ayithathwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu.

Amakheli e-imeyili nobubanzi be-GDPR

Ikheli le-imeyili

Manje njengoba kuchazwa imininingwane yomuntu, kudinga ukubhekwa uma ikheli le-imeyili libhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Umthetho wamacala waseDashi ukhombisa ukuthi amakheli e-imeyili kungenzeka abe yimininingwane yomuntu siqu, kepha ukuthi lokhu akuyona njalo njalo. Kuya ngokuthi umuntu ongokwemvelo ukhonjwe noma cha okhonjwa ngokuya ngekheli le-imeyili. [1] Indlela abantu abahlele ngayo amakheli abo e-imeyili kufanele icatshangwe ukuze kubonakale ukuthi ikheli le-imeyili lingabonakala njengedatha yomuntu siqu noma cha. Abantu abaningi bemvelo bahlela ikheli labo le-imeyili ngendlela yokuthi ikheli kufanele libhekwe njengelomuntu uqobo. Lokhu kwenziwa ngokwesibonelo uma kuklanywa ikheli le-imeyili ngale ndlela elandelayo: [i-imeyili ivikelwe] Leli kheli le-imeyili lidalula igama lokuqala nelokugcina lomuntu wemvelo osebenzisa ikheli. Ngakho-ke, lo muntu angakhonjwa ngokususelwa kuleli kheli le-imeyili. Amakheli e-imeyili asetshenziselwa imisebenzi yebhizinisi nawo angaqukatha imininingwane yomuntu uqobo. Lokhu kunjalo lapho kukhulunywa ngekheli le-imeyili ngale ndlela elandelayo: [i-imeyili ivikelwe] Kuleli kheli le-imeyili kutholakala ukuthi yiziphi izintshisekelo zomuntu osebenzisa ikheli le-imeyili, ngubani igama lakhe lokugcina nokuthi usebenza kuphi lo muntu. Ngakho-ke, umuntu osebenzisa leli kheli le-imeyili uyakhonjwa ngokuya ngekheli le-imeyili.

Ikheli le-imeyili alithathwa njengedatha yomuntu uqobo uma kungekho muntu wemvelo ongakhonjwa kulo. Lokhu kunjalo lapho ngokwesibonelo kusetshenziswa ikheli le-imeyili elilandelayo: [i-imeyili ivikelwe] Leli kheli le-imeyili alinayo noma imiphi imininingwane umuntu wemvelo angabonakala kuyo. Amakheli e-imeyili ajwayelekile asetshenziswa izinkampani, afana [i-imeyili ivikelwe], futhi akubhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Leli kheli le-imeyili alinayo imininingwane yomuntu uqobo lapho umuntu wemvelo angabonakala khona. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ikheli le-imeyili alisetshenziswa ngumuntu wemvelo, kodwa yibhizinisi elisemthethweni. Ngakho-ke, akubhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Ukusuka kumacala wamacala waseDashi kungaphethwa ngokuthi amakheli e-imeyili angaba idatha yomuntu siqu, kepha lokhu akuyona njalo njalo; kuya ngesakhiwo sekheli le-imeyili.

Kunethuba elihle lokuthi abantu bemvelo bangakhonjwa ngekheli le-imeyili abalisebenzisayo, elenza amakheli e-imeyili idatha yomuntu siqu. Ukuze ubeke amakheli e-imeyili njengedatha yomuntu siqu, akunandaba ukuthi inkampani empeleni isebenzisa amakheli e-imeyili ukuthola abasebenzisi. Noma inkampani ingasebenzisi amakheli e-imeyili ngenhloso yokuhlonza abantu bemvelo, amakheli e-imeyili lapho abantu bemvelo bekhonjwa khona asathathwa njengamininingwane yomuntu uqobo. Akuwona wonke uxhumano lobuchwepheshe noma obumbene phakathi komuntu nedatha eyanele ukuze kuqokwe idatha njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Kodwa-ke, uma kungenzeka ukuthi amakheli e-imeyili angasetshenziselwa ukukhomba abasebenzisi, ngokwesibonelo ukuthola amacala okukhwabanisa, amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Kulokhu, akunandaba ukuthi inkampani ihlose ukusebenzisa amakheli e-imeyili ngale njongo. Umthetho ukhuluma ngemininingwane yomuntu uma kungenzeka ukuthi idatha ingasetshenziswa ngenhloso ekhomba umuntu wemvelo. [2]

Imininingwane yomuntu ekhethekile

Ngenkathi amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu esikhathini esiningi, ayiyona idatha yomuntu siqu ekhethekile. Idatha yomuntu siqu ekhethekile yedatha yomuntu siqu eveza imvelaphi yobuhlanga noma yobuzwe, imibono yezombusazwe, izinkolelo zenkolo noma zefilosofi noma ubulungu bohwebo, nedatha yofuzo noma ye-biometric. Lokhu kuvela kusuka ku-athikili 9 GDPR. Futhi, ikheli le-imeyili liqukethe imininingwane emincane yomphakathi kuneyakheli ikheli lekhaya. Kunzima ngokwengeziwe ukuthola ulwazi ngekheli le-imeyili lomuntu othile kunekheli lakhe lekhaya futhi kuncike engxenyeni enkulu yomsebenzisi wekheli le-imeyili ukuthi ngabe ikheli le-imeyili lenziwa emphakathini noma cha. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukutholwa kwekheli le-imeyili obekumele kuhlala kufihliwe, kunemiphumela emibi kakhulu kunokutholwa kwekheli lasekhaya obekufanele lifihlwe. Kulula ukushintsha ikheli le-imeyili kunekheli lasekhaya nokutholwa kwekheli le-imeyili kungaholela ekuxhumaneni kwedijithali, ngenkathi ukutholwa kwekheli lasekhaya kungaholela ekuxhumaneni komuntu siqu. [3]

Icubungula idatha yomuntu siqu

Sithole ukuthi amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu esikhathini esiningi. Noma kunjalo, i-GDPR isebenza kuphela ezinkampanini ezenza idatha yomuntu siqu. Ukucutshungulwa kwemininingwane yomuntu siqu kukhona zonke izinto eziphathelene nedatha yomuntu siqu. Lokhu kuchazwa futhi ku-GDPR. Ngokuya nge-athikili 4 sub 2 GDPR, ukucubungulwa kwemininingwane yomuntu uqobo kusho noma yikuphi ukusebenza okwenziwa kwidatha yomuntu siqu, noma ngabe kungenziwa ngokuzenzakalelayo. Izibonelo ukuqoqwa, ukuqoshwa, ukuhlelwa, ukuhlelwa, ukugcinwa nokusetshenziswa kwemininingwane yomuntu uqobo. Lapho izinkampani zenza imisebenzi esele ichaziwe maqondana namakheli e-imeyili, zisebenza ngemininingwane yomuntu uqobo. Uma kunjalo, zingaphansi kwe-GDPR.

Isiphetho

Akuwona wonke amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Kodwa-ke, amakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu uma anikezela ngemininingwane ekhonjwa ngomuntu wemvelo. Kunamakheli amaningi e-imeyili ahlelwe ngendlela umuntu ongokwemvelo osebenzisa ikheli le-imeyili angabonakala ngayo. Lokhu kunjalo lapho ikheli le-imeyili liqukethe igama noma indawo yomsebenzi womuntu wemvelo. Ngakho-ke, amakheli amaningi e-imeyili azobhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Kunzima ezinkampanini ukwenza umehluko phakathi kwamakheli e-imeyili abhekwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu namakheli e-imeyili angewona, ngoba lokhu kuncike ngokuphelele ekwakhiweni kwekheli le-imeyili. Ngakho-ke, kuphephile ukusho ukuthi izinkampani ezenza idatha yomuntu siqu, zizothola amakheli e-imeyili athathwa njengedatha yomuntu siqu. Lokhu kusho ukuthi lezi zinkampani zingaphansi kwe-GDPR futhi kufanele zisebenzise inqubomgomo yobumfihlo ehambisana ne-GDPR.

[1] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2002: AE5514.

[2] IKamerstukken II 1979/80, 25 892, 3 (MvT).

[3] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2002: AE5514.

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