Ukuvikeleka kwezezimali ngaphakathi komthetho webhizinisi

Osomabhizinisi, ukuthola ukuphepha kwezezimali kubaluleke kakhulu. Uma ungena esivumelwaneni nelinye iqembu, ufuna ukwenza isiqiniseko sokuthi lo mbala ugcwalisa izibopho zakhe zokukhokha zenkontileka. Uma uhlinzeka ngezimali noma wenza utshalomali ukuze kusizakale omunye umuntu, ufuna nesiqiniseko sokuthi imali oyinikezile izobuyiselwa ekugcineni. Ngamanye amagama, ufuna ukuthola ukuphepha kwezezimali. Ukuthola ukuphepha kwezezimali kuqinisekisa ukuthi obolekayo unemali ebambisene lapho eqaphela ukuthi isicelo sakhe ngeke sigcwaliseke. Kunamathuba ahlukahlukene osomabhizinisi nezinkampani ukuthola ukuphepha kwezezimali. Kulesi sihloko, kuzokhulunywa ngezikweletu eziningana, i-escrow, (inkampani yabazali), ukuqinisekiswa kwesivumelwano sokubambisa ngempahla mboleko kanye nesibambiso.

Ukuvikeleka kwezezimali ngaphakathi komthetho webhizinisi

1. Izikweletu eziningana

Endabeni yezikweletu eziningana, ezibizwa nangokuthi isikweletu esihlanganyelwe, asikhulumi ngokungagcwele isiqinisekiso esikhishwe, kepha kukhona okweletayo osebenza naye obopha abanye abakweletwayo. Izikweletu eziningana zitholakala endabeni 6: 6 ye-Dutch Civil Code. Izibonelo zezikweletu eziningana kubudlelwano bezinkampani zingabalingani bomfelandawonye abanesibopho sokukhokhwa kwezikweletu zobambiswano noma zabaqondisi benkampani yezomthetho, ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile, abangabekwa icala ngezikweletu zenkampani. Izikweletu eziningana zivame ukusungulwa njengokuphepha esivumelwaneni phakathi kwamaqembu. Umthetho wesithupha ngukuthi, lapho ukusebenza okuvela esivumelwaneni kubangelwe ngabakweletwayo ababili noma ngaphezulu, ngamunye uzibophezele esabelweni esilinganayo. Ngakho-ke, bangaboshwa kuphela ukufeza ingxenye yabo yesivumelwano. Noma kunjalo, izikweletu eziningana zihlukile kulo mthetho. Endabeni yezikweletu eziningana, kukhona ukusebenza okufanele kwenziwe ngabakweletwayo ababili noma ngaphezulu, kepha lapho umuntu ngamunye okweletwayo angabanjwa ngokwahlukileyo ukwenza umsebenzi ngamunye. Obolekayo unelungelo lokugcwalisa isivumelwano sonke kusuka kubo bonke abakweletayo. Ngakho-ke, lowo obolekayo angakhetha ukuthi imuphi kulabo abakweletwayo afisa ukubhekana naye futhi angafuna imali ephelele efanelekile evela kulowo okweletwayo. Lapho okweletwayo oyedwa ekhokha yonke leyo mali, abakweletayo nabo abasamkweleti umuntu okweletwayo.

1.1 Ilungelo lokuthola usizo

Abakweletwayo banesibopho sangaphakathi sokukhokha omunye komunye, ngakho-ke isikweletu esakhokhwa umuntu oyedwa okweletayo kufanele silungiswe phakathi kwabo bonke abakweletayo. Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi ilungelo lokuphindisela. Ilungelo lokubuyela emuva lilungelo lomuntu okweletwayo ukubuyisa lokho akukhokhele omunye obekweletayo. Lapho okweletwayo enecala lokukhokha isikweletu bese ekhokha isikweletu esigcwele, uthola ilungelo lokuthola lesi sikweletu kulabo abakweletwayo abesebenza nabo.

Uma okweletwayo engasafuni ukuba nesibopho sokukhokhelwa imali ayisebenzisile kanye nabanye abakweletwayo, angacela lowo okweletwayo ngokubhala phansi ukuthi amkhiphe kwesinye isikweletu sakhe. Isibonelo salokhu yisimo lapho okweletayo engenile esivumelwaneni semali mboleko ehlanganyelwe nomlingani, kodwa efisa ukushiya inkampani. Kulokhu, ukuxoshwa okubhaliwe kwesikweletu esithile kumele ngaso sonke isikhathi kudwetshwe ngumbolekisi; Ukuzibophezela ngomlomo okuvela kulabo obakweletayo ukuthi bazokhokha izikweletu akwanele. Uma wena obakweletayo ungahluleka noma ungasifezi lesi sivumelwano somlomo, okweletayo usengasifaka kuwe sonke lesi sikweletu.

1.2. Isidingo semvume

Umlingani womshado noma obhalisiwe womuntu okweletayo onomthwalo wemfanelo ovikelwe ngumthetho. Ngokusho kwendatshana 1:88 isigaba 1 sub c I-Dutch Civil Code, umlingani udinga imvume komunye umuntu ofana naye ekungeneleni izinkontileka ezibopha yena njengomuntu onecala lokukweleta yena, ngaphandle kwemisebenzi ejwayelekile yebhizinisi yenkampani. Lesi yisidingo esibizwa ngokuthi yimvume. Le ndatshana ihlose ukuvikela abashade ezenzweni zomthetho ezingafaka engcupheni enkulu yezimali. Lapho okweletwayo ephethe lowo okweletayo naye icala icala, lokhu kungaba nemiphumela koshade naye okweletwayo. Noma kunjalo, kukhona okuhlukile kule mfuneko yemvume. Ngokusho kwendatshana 1:88 isigaba 5 I-Dutch Civil Code, imvume ayidingeki lapho umqondisi wenkampani yezikweletu enomkhawulo noma inkampani ezimele ekhawulelwe isikweletu (i-Dutch NV ne-BV) ingena esivumelwaneni, ngenkathi lo mqondisi eyedwa, noma ehlanganile nabaqondisi abasebenza naye, umnikazi weningi lamasheya futhi uma isivumelwano senziwa egameni lemisebenzi ejwayelekile yebhizinisi yenkampani. Kulokhu, kunezidingo ezimbili okudingeka zigcwaliswe: umqondisi ulawula umphathi kanye nabaninimasheya abaningi noma ungumnikazi wamasheya amaningi kanye nabaqondisi abasebenza naye thend isivumelwano saphethwa egameni lemisebenzi ejwayelekile yebhizinisi yenkampani. Lapho lezi zidingo zingahlangabezwanga zombili, isidingo semvume siyasebenza.

2. I-Escrow

Lapho iqembu lidinga ukuphepha ukuthi imali yesicelo izokhokhwa, lokhu kuvikeleka nakho kungahlinzekwa yi-escrow.[1] I-Escrow isuselwa esihlokweni 7: 850 Dutch Code Code. Sikhuluma nge-escrow lapho umuntu wesithathu ezinikela kuye kulowo obolekayo ngokuzibophezela okufanele kugcwaliswe elinye iqembu (okweletayo oyinhloko). Lokhu kwenziwa ngokuphetha isivumelwano se-escrow. Iqembu lesithathu elihlinzeka ngokuphepha, libizwa ngokuthi yi-guarantor. Umqinisekisi uthatha isibopho maqondana nalowo okweletwayo oyinhloko amkweletayo. Ngakho-ke, umgqugquzeli awemukeli isikweletu sesikweletu sakhe, kepha unesikweletu seqembu futhi uqobo uhlinzeka ngokuphepha ukukhokha lesi sikweletu. Isiqinisekisi sikhokha ngempahla yakhe yonke. I-escrow kungavunyelwana ngayo ukuze kufezekiswe izibopho esezivele zikhona, kodwa futhi nokugcwaliswa kwezibopho zesikhathi esizayo. Ngokulandela i-athikili 7: 851 isigaba 2 Ikhodi Yombuso WaseDashi, lezi zibopho zesikhathi esizayo kufanele zinqunywe ngokwanele ngesikhathi escrow sesiphelile ngaso. Uma okweletwayo oyinhloko engakwazi ukufeza izibopho zakhe ezivela esivumelwaneni, okweletwayo angabhekana nalowo oqinisekisile ukuze afeze lezi zibopho. Ngokusho kwendatshana yesi-7: 851 ye-Dutch Civil Code, i-escrow incike kwisibopho sokweletwayo inhloso leyo escrow ephethwe ngayo. Ngakho-ke, i-escrow iyayeka ukuba khona lapho okweletayo esefeze izibopho zakhe ezivela esivumelwaneni esikhulu.

Obolekayo akakwazi ukukhuluma nomqinisekisi kuphela ukuze akhokhe isikweletu. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi umthetho obizwa ngokuthi yi-subsidiarity udlala indima yescrow. Lokhu kusho ukuthi lowo obolekayo akakwazi ukufaka isikhalazo ngokushesha kumqinisekisi wokukhokha. Okokuqala, umgqugquzeli kungenzeka angabekwa icala lokukhokha ngaphambi kokuthi okweletayo oyinhloko ahluleke ukufeza izibopho zakhe. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 7: 855 Dutch Code Code. Lokhu kusho ukuthi umuntu obolekayo angaboshwa kuphela uma okweletwayo esekhulumane nomuntu obekweletayo okokuqala. Lowo okweletwayo kufanele enze konke okudingekayo ukuthola ukuthi okweletayo, lowo ozinikele kuye, wehlulekile ukufeza isibopho sakhe sokukhokha. Kunoma ikuphi, okweletwayo kufanele athumele isaziso sokuzenzakalelayo kulowo okweletayo oyinhloko. Kuphela uma okweletwayo oyinhloko esahluleka ukuvumelana nesibopho sokukhokha ngemuva kokuthola lesi saziso sokuzenzakalelayo, okweletwayo angafaka isikhalazo kumqinisekisi ukuze athole inkokhelo. Kodwa-ke, umgqugquzeli unethuba lokuzivikela ngokumangalela lowo okweletwayo. Kuze kube manje, unezivikelo ezifanayo azisebenzelayo lowo okweletwayo oyinhloko anazo, njengokumiswa, ukuxolelwa noma ukukhalaza kokungahambisani. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 7: 852 Dutch Code Code.

2.1 Ilungelo lokuthola usizo

Umqinisekisi okhokha isikweletu somuntu okweletayo, angakwazi ukubuyisa le mali kuye okweletwayo. Ngakho-ke ilungelo lokuthola usizo lisebenza naku-escrow. E-escrow, kufakwa indlela ekhethekile yelungelo lokuthola usizo, okuyi-subrogation. Umgomo oyinhloko ukuthi isimangalo siyayeka ukuba khona lapho isimangalo sikhokhwe. Kodwa-ke, ukuzibulala kuyinto ehlukile kulo mthetho. Ngokuzibulala, isimangalo sidluliselwa komunye umnikazi. Kulokhu, elinye iqembu elingaphezu komkweletayo likhokha isimangalo salo obolekayo. E-escrow, isimangalo sikhokhelwa umuntu wesithathu, okuyi-guarantor. Ngokukhokha isikweletu, noma kunjalo, isimangalo esibhekene nomuntu okweletwayo asilahleki, ibhasi lidluliswa lisuka kulowo obolekayo liye kumqinisekisi okhokhele isikweletu. Ngemuva kokukhokha isikweletu, umgqugquzeli angakwazi ukuyolanda imali leyo kuye kumkweleti amenzele isivumelwano se-escrow. Ukucwilisa kungenzeka kuphela ezimweni ezilawulwa ngumthetho. Ukucatshangelwa mayelana ne-escrow kungenzeka ngesisekelo sendatshana 7: 866 Dutch Code Code jo. indatshana 6:10 Ikhodi Yombuso WaseDashi.

2.2 ibhizinisi kanye ne-escrow yangasese

Kunomehluko phakathi kwebhizinisi ne-escrow yangasese. Ibhizinisi escrow yi-escrow ephethwa lapho kwenziwa umsebenzi wobuchwepheshe noma webhizinisi, i-escrow yangasese is escrow ephetha ngaphandle kokuzivocavoca ngomsebenzi noma ngebhizinisi. Zombili izinhlangano ezingokomthetho nomuntu wemvelo bangafaka isivumelwano se-escrow. Izibonelo zalokhu yinkampani ephethe ephetha isivumelwano se-escrow nebhange ngokuxhaswa ngemali engaphansi kwayo nabazali nabazali abaphetha isivumelwano se-escrow sokuqinisekisa ukuthi ukukhokhelwa kwenzalo yemali mboleko yengane yabo kuyenziwa ebhange. Akudingeki ukuthi i-escrow igcwaliswe egameni lebhange, kungenzeka futhi ukuthi ungene izivumelwano nabanye ababakweletwayo.

Isikhathi esiningi kuyacaca ukuthi ibhizinisi noma isecow yangasese yaqedwa yini. Uma inkampani ingena esivumelwaneni se-escrow, ibhizinisi lescrow liyaphethwa. Uma umuntu wemvelo engena esivumelwaneni se-escrow, kuvame ukuthi kuphethwe i-escrow yangasese. Kodwa-ke, ukucacisa okungenzeka kungavela lapho umqondisi wenkampani yezikweletu enomkhawulo noma inkampani ezimele ethwala izikweletu ezimele enza isivumelwano se-escrow egameni lebhizinisi elisemthethweni. Isigaba 7: 857 I-Dutch Civil Code ifaka lokho okushiwo yi-escrow yangasese: isiphetho se-escrow esenziwe ngumuntu wemvelo ongazange enze umsebenzi wobuchwepheshe bakhe, noma ngokwenza okuvamile kwenkampani yezikweletu zomphakathi ekhawulelwe noma isikweletu sangasese esinqunyelwe. inkampani. Futhi, umgqugquzeli kufanele abe ngumqondisi wenkampani futhi, yedwa noma nabaqondisi abasebenza naye, ungumnikazi wamasheya amaningi. Kunezindlela ezimbili ezibalulekile:

- Umqinisekisi ngumqondisi ophethe nabaninimasheya abaningi noma ungumnikazi wamasheya amaningi kanye nabaqondisi abasebenza naye;
- I-escrow iphethwa egameni lemisebenzi ejwayelekile yebhizinisi yenkampani.

Ekusebenzeni, kuvame ukuba nomqondisi ophethe / umnikazi wamasheya amaningi ongena esivumelwaneni se-escrow. Umqondisi ophethe / umnikazi wamasheya amaningi anquma inqubomgomo yenkampani futhi uzoba nentshisekelo yomuntu siqu escrow enkampanini yakhe, ngoba kungenzeka ukuthi ibhange alifuni ukunikeza ngezimali ngaphandle kokuphetha isivumelwano se-escrow. Ngaphezu kwalokho, isivumelwano se-escrow, esiphethwe ngumphathi olawula / umnikazi wamasheya amaningi, kufanele futhi sigcwaliswe ngenhloso yemisebenzi ejwayelekile yebhizinisi. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kwehlukile kwisimo ngasinye futhi umthetho awuchazi igama elithi 'imisebenzi ejwayelekile yebhizinisi'. Ukuze kuhlolwe ukuthi ngabe i-escrow iyaphethwa yini ngenhloso yemisebenzi ejwayelekile yebhizinisi, kumele izimo zecala zihlolisiswe. Lapho zombili lezi zinqubo zihlangatshezwa, iscrow yebhizinisi iyaphethwa. Lapho umqondisi ophetha i-escrow engeyena umqondisi ophethe noma umnikazi wamasheya amaningi noma i-escrow engazange aqedwe ngenhloso yemisebenzi ejwayelekile yebhizinisi, kufakwa iscrow yangasese.

Imithetho eyengeziwe isebenza escrow yangasese. Umthetho uvikela umlingani womshado noma obhalisiwe womqinisekisi wangasese. Isidingo semvume futhi sisebenza ngasese escrow. Ngokusho kwendatshana 1:88 isigaba 1 sub c I-Dutch Civil code, umlingani udinga imvume yomunye ukuthi angenele esivumelwaneni ahlose ukumbopha ngaso njengabaqinisekisi. Imvume koshade naye womqinisekisi iyadingeka-ke ukungena kwesivumelwano esizimele sangasese. Kodwa-ke, i-athikili 1:88 isigaba 5 I-Dutch Civil Code ifaka ukuthi le mvume ayidingeki ngenkathi i-escrow iphethwa ngumqinisekisi webhizinisi. Ukuvikelwa komlingani womqinisekisi ngakho-ke kusebenza kuphela kwizivumelwano zangasese ze-escrow.

I-3. Isiqiniseko

Isiqinisekiso kungenye indlela yokuthola ukuphepha kokuthi isimangalo sizokhokhwa. Isiqinisekiso siyilungelo lokuphepha komuntu siqu, lapho umuntu wesithathu ethatha isibopho esizimele sokugcwalisa ukuzibophezela phakathi komuntu ombolekayo nalowo okweletayo. Isiqinisekiso-ke sifaka ukuthi umuntu wesithathu uqinisekisa ukugcwaliseka kwezibopho zomkweletu. Umqinisekisi uthembisa ukukhokha isikweletu uma okweletwayo engakwazi noma engeke asikhokhe.[2] Lesi siqinisekiso asilawulwa ngumthetho, kepha kuqinisekiswa isiqinisekiso esivumelwaneni phakathi kwamaqembu.

3.1. Isiqinisekiso sokutholwa

Umehluko ungenziwa phakathi kwezindlela ezimbili zamaqinisekiso ukuze uthole ukuphepha; isiqinisekiso sesengezo kanye nesiqinisekiso esingaqondakali. Isiqinisekiso sokufinyelela sincike ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kombolekayo nalowo okweletayo. Lapho ubonwa kuqala, isiqinisekiso sesengezo sifana kakhulu ne-escrow. Kodwa-ke, umehluko ukuthi i-guarantor maqondana nesiqinisekiso sokufinyeleleka ayizibopheleli ekusebenzeni okufanayo nalowo okweletayo oyinhloko, kodwa esibophweni somuntu siqu esinomongo ohlukile. Isibonelo esilula salokhu lapho umqinisekisi ezinikela ngokwakhe ukuletha utamatisi kulowo obolekayo, uma okweletwayo engafezekisi isibopho sakhe sokuletha amazambane. Kulokhu, okuqukethwe kwesibopho somqinisekisi kuhluke kokuqukethwe kwesibopho sokweletwayo. Kodwa-ke, lokhu akukuphazamisi eqinisweni lokuthi kunokuhlangana okukhulu phakathi kwalezi zibopho ezimbili. Isiqinisekiso sesengezo siyengeziwe ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kombolekayo nalowo okweletayo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, isiqinisekiso sokutholwa kwesinye isikhathi sivame ukuba nomsebenzi wenethiwekhi yokuphepha; kuphela uma okweletwayo eyinhloko engafezekisi izibopho zakhe, umqinisekisi ubizelwe ukwenza lokho ukuzibophezela kwakhe.

Yize isiqinisekiso singashiwongo ngokusobala emthethweni, i-athikili 7: 863 yaseDutch Civil Code isisho ngokuphelele isiqinisekiso sokutholwa. Ngokusho kwalesi sihloko, izinhlinzeko eziphathelene ne-escrow yangasese nazo ziyasebenza ezivumelwaneni lapho umuntu enza insizakalo ethile lapho umuntu wesithathu ehluleka ukuthobela isibopho esithile ngokuqukethwe okuhlukile kwesikweletwayo. Izinhlinzeko maqondana ne-escrow yangasese ngakho-ke ziyasebenza nesiqinisekiso sokutholwa esiphothulwa umuntu oyimfihlo.

3.2 Isiqinisekiso sokukhishwa

Ngokungezelela kusiqinisekiso sesengezo, sazi nokuphepha kwezezimali kwesiqinisekiso esingaqondakali. Ngokungafani nesiqinisekiso sokungena, isiqinisekiso esingaqondakaliyo ukuzibophezela kokuzibophezela kwesiqinisekisi kulowo okweletwayo. Lesi siqinisekiso asibandlululi kusuka ebudlelwaneni obukhona obuphansi phakathi kombolekisi nomuntu okweletayo. Esimweni sesiqinisekiso esingaqondakali, umgqugquzeli uzibophezela kwisibopho esizimele sokwenza umsebenzi okweletwayo enze, ngaphansi kwemibandela ethile. Lokhu kusebenza akuboshelwe esivumelwaneni esingaphansi phakathi komkweletisi nomuntu okweletwayo. Isibonelo esaziwa kakhulu sesiqinisekiso esingaqondakaliyo isiqinisekiso sasebhange.

Lapho sekuphele isiqinisekiso esingaqondakali, isiqinisekisi asinakukwazi ukuvikela ubudlelwane obuyimbangela. Lapho izimo zesiqinisekiso zihlangatshezwa, isiqinisekisi asikwazi ukuvimba ukukhokha. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi isiqinisekiso sisuselwa esivumelwaneni esihlukile phakathi komkweletisi nomqinisekisi. Lokhu kusho ukuthi okweletwayo angabhekana ngqo nomuntu okweletayo, ngaphandle kokuthumela isaziso sokuzenzakalelayo kumkweletu. Ngokuphetha isiqinisekiso, okweletwayo ngakho-ke uthola izinga eliphakeme lokuqiniseka ukuthi isikweletu sikhokhwe kuye. Ngaphezu kwalokho, isixhasi asinalo ilungelo lokuphindiselwa. Kodwa-ke, amaqembu angafaka izindlela zokuvikela esivumelwaneni sesiqinisekiso. Imiphumela engokomthetho yesiqinisekiso esingaqondakali ayitholakali emithethweni esemthethweni, kepha ingagcwaliswa amaqembu ngokwawo. Yize umqinisekisi engenalo ilungelo lokuphinde abe ngaphansi komthetho, angakwazi ukuthola izindlela zokuziphilisa. Isibonelo, isiqinisekiso esiphikisayo singaphethwa kanye nomuntu okweletwayo noma itayitela lokudalulwa lingakhiwa.

3.3 Isiqinisekiso senkampani yabazali

Emthethweni wenkampani, isiqinisekiso senkampani yabazali sivame ukuqedwa. Inkampani engumzali iqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yabazali iyazibophezela ekuthobeleni izibopho zoxhaso lweqembu elifanayo uma umxhaso ngokwawo ungahlangani noma ungakwazi ukufeza lezi zibopho. Vele, lesiqinisekiso singavunyelwana kuphela nezinkampani eziyingxenye yeqembu noma inkampani ebambe. Ngokweqiniso, isiqinisekiso seqembu siyisiqinisekiso esingaqondakali. Kodwa-ke, ngokujwayelekile akukho 'mqondo wokuqala, bese ukhuluma', lapho umqinisekisi ekhokha khona leso sikweletu ngaphandle kokubheka ukuthi ngabe kukhona yini isicelo esifunekayo ngokumelene nomuntu okweletwayo. Isizathu salokhu ukuthi okweletayo angaphansi kokuxhaswa; umqinisekisi uzofuna ukubheka kuqala uma kukhona isimangalo esifunwayo. Noma kunjalo, ukwakhiwa 'kokuqala kokukhokha, bese kukhulunywa' kungakhelwa esivumelwaneni sesiqinisekiso. Ngemuva kwakho konke, amaqembu angakwazi ukuhlela isiqinisekiso ngokuya ngezifiso zawo. Amaqembu kufanele futhi anqume ukuthi ngabe isiqinisekiso sifaka kuphela isiqinisekiso sokukhokha noma ukuthi isiqinisekiso kufanele simboze ezinye izibopho, futhi-ke siyisiqinisekiso sokusebenza. Ubungako, ubude besikhathi kanye nemibandela yesiqinisekiso nakho kunqunywa amaqembu ngokwawo. Isiqinisekiso senkampani engumzali singanikeza isisombululo uma umxhaso ushabalala, kodwa kuphela uma inkampani yabazali ingawa kanye nezinkampani ezingaphansi kwayo.

4.-403-isitatimende

Eqenjini lezinkampani, okubizwa ngokuthi-403-statement kusuke kukhishwa njalo. Lesi sitatimende sisuka esihlokweni 2: 403 Dutch Code Code. Ngokukhipha isitatimende esingu-403, izinkampani ezixhasayo zeqembu azikhululwa ekubhalweni nasekushicileleni ama-akhawunti wonyaka ahlukile. Esikhundleni salokho, kuhlanganiswa i-akhawunti yonyaka ehlanganisiwe. Le yi-akhawunti yonyaka yenkampani yabazali, lapho kufakwa kuyo yonke imiphumela yemixhaso. Isizinda se-akhawunti ehlanganisiwe yonyaka ukuthi yonke imixhaso, noma ihlala isebenza ngokuzimela, ekugcineni iba ngaphansi kokuphathwa kanye nokuqashwa kwenkampani yabazali. Isitatimende esingu-403 isenzo esingokomthetho esingahambisani, okuvela kuzo ukuzibophezela okuzimele kwenkampani yabazali. Lokhu kusho ukuthi isitatimende esingu-403 ukuzibophezela okungafinyeleleki. Isitatimende esingu-403 asikhishwa ngamaqembu amakhulu aphesheya kuphela; Amaqembu amancane, ngokwesibonelo aqukethe izinkampani ezimbili ezizimele zesikweletu, angasebenzisa isitatimende sama-403. Isitatimende esingama-403 kufanele sibhaliswe ngaphakathi kweRejista Yezokuhweba yeChamber of Commerce. Lesi sitatimende sikhomba ukuthi yiziphi izikweletu zomxhaso ezihlanganiswa yinkampani yabazali nokuthi kusukela ngaluphi usuku.

Olunye uhlangothi lwesitatimende esingama-403 sithi inkampani yabazali enalesi sitatimende ithi yiyo ebhekele izibopho zabasizi bayo. Inkampani yabazali inesikweletu esihlukanisayo sokukweletwa okuvela kwizenzo ezingokomthetho zabaxhasi. Lesi sikweletu esiningi sifaka ukuthi umuntu okweletwayo okuxhaswe ngaye lapho kukhishwe khona isitatimende esingama-403 angaqoka ukuthi iyiphi inhlangano yezomthetho afuna ukubhekana nayo ukuze kufezwe isimangalo sakhe: okuxhaswe ngalo lapho ephethe isivumelwano sokuqala noma inkampani yabazali ekhiphe 403-isitatimende. Ngalesisikweletu eziningana, okweletwayo unxephezelwa ngokungabi nalwazi ngesimo sezezimali soxhaso aluzakwabo. Ngenkathi ukuphepha kwezezimali okuchazwe ngenhla kufaka kuphela isikweletu ekubhekeni kubambisene naye isivumelwano, isivumelwano se-403 sakha isikweletu kubo bonke abakweletwayo abaxhaswayo. Kungahle kube nabantu abakweletayo abangakhuluma nenkampani yabazali ukuze kufezekiswe izicelo zabo. Isikweletu esingaba khona esisuselwa kwisitatimende esingu-403 ngakho-ke sikhulu. Okubi kulokhu ukuthi isitatimende esingama-403 singathinta iqembu lonke lapho inkampani exhasayo ibhekana nezinkinga zezezimali. Uma uxhaso luhamba ngokuqothuka, iqembu lonke lingawa.

4.1 Ukuchithwa kwesitatimende esingu-403

Kungenzeka ukuthi inkampani yabazali ayisafisi ukuba nesikweletu sezikweletu noma izinkampani zayo ezingaphansi kwayo. Lokhu kungaba njalo lapho inkampani yabazali ifuna ukuthengisa okuxhaswayo. Ukuze uhoxise isitatimende esingu-403, inqubo etholakala esebhalweni 2: 404 ye-Dutch Civil Code idinga ukulandela. Le nqubo iqukethe izinto ezimbili. Okokuqala, isitatimende esingu-403 kufanele sidingidwe. Isimemezelo sokuchithwa kwemali kufanele sifakwe kwiRejista Yokuhweba yeChamber of Commerce. Lesi simemezelo sokuchithwa kufaka ukuthi inkampani yabazali ayisabophezwanga izikweletu zoxhaso oluvelayo ngemuva kokukhishwa kwesimemezelo sokusula esikhundleni. Kodwa-ke, ngokwe-athikili 2: 404 isigaba 2 I-Dutch Civil Code, inkampani yabazali izohlala inesibopho sezikweletu ezivela ezenzweni zezomthetho ezaqedwa ngaphambi kokuthi isitatimende esingu-403 sichithwe. Isikweletu ngakho-ke siyaqhubeka nokuba khona sezikweletu ezivela kwizivumelwano ezaqedwa ngemuva kokukhipha isitatimende ezingama-403, kodwa ngaphambi kokukhipha isimemezelo sokuchithwa. Lokhu ukuvikela okweletwayo, okungenzeka ukuthi ungene esivumelwaneni nesiqinisekiso sesitatimende esingu-403 engqondweni.

Kodwa-ke, kungenzeka ukuqeda isikweletu maqondana nalezi zenzo zomthetho ezidlule. Ukuze wenze lokhu, kumele kulandelwe inqubo eyengeziwe, etholakala embhalweni 2: 404 isigaba 3 Wekhodi Yombuso WaseDashi. Kunemibandela eminingana kule nqubo:

- osizayo kungenzeka angabe esaba yingxenye yeqembu;
- isaziso senhloso yokuqeda isitatimende esingu-403 kufanele ngabe satholakala ukuthi sihlolwe eChamber of Commerce okungenani izinyanga ezimbili;
- Kumele kube okungenani izinyanga ezimbili kudlule isimemezelo ephephandabeni likazwelonke sokuthi isaziso sokuqedwa siyatholakala ukuze sihlolwe.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, abakweletisi basenenketho yokuphikisa inhloso yokuqeda isitatimende esingu-403. Isitatimende esingu-403 singanqanyulwa kuphela uma kungekho ophikisayo noma cha osefakiwe ngesikhathi noma lapho ophikisi bemangale bethiwe yijaji. Kuphela uma imibandela yokuncishiswa nokwenqanyulwa kwesitatimende se-403 ihlangatshezwa, inkampani yabazali ayisabekwa icala ngokuqinile kunoma yiziphi izikweletu zoxhaso. Kubalulekile ukuthi lokhu kuncishiswa kanye nokuqedwa kwenziwe ngokucophelela; uma ukuhoxiswa noma ukunqanyulwa kungakhange kwenziwe kahle, inkampani yabazali ingabekwa nesikweletu samacala oxhaso oluthengisiwe eminyakeni edlule.

5. Impahla nesibambiso

Ukuvikeleka kwezezimali kungatholwa ngokuqalwa kobambiso noma isibambiso. Ngenkathi lezi zinhlobo zokuphepha kwezezimali zifana ngokuqinile, kunokuhlukahluka okuningana.

5.1. Impahla

Ukubolekwa kwempahla ukuphepha kwezezimali amaqembu angakubeka. Impahla efakiwe ifaka ukuthi elinye iqembu lihlinzeke kwelinye iqembu. Ngemuva kwalokho kuzobekwa imali ebanjiswayo ukuze kutholakale ukuphepha kwezezimali maqondana nokukhokhelwa kwale mboleko. Impahla ebanjiwe ilungelo lesakhiwo elingasungulwa maqondana nempahla yalowo okweletwayo. Uma okweletwayo ehluleka ukubuyisela imalimboleko yakhe, okweletwayo angafuna leyo mpahla ukuze afeze isicelo sakhe. Isibonelo esaziwa kakhulu sokubanjwa kwemalimboleko ngumnini-khaya osevumelene nebhange ukuthi ibhange lizomnika imalimboleko bese esebenzisa indlu yakhe njengezokuphepha ukukhokha imalimboleko. Kodwa-ke, lokhu akusho ukuthi imali ebanjiswayo ingasungulwa kuphela ngebhange. Ezinye izinkampani kanye nabantu bangaphetha nokubolekwa imali. Isigama esikweletwayo singase sidide. Enkulumweni ejwayelekile, iphathi, ngokwesibonelo ibhange, inikezela ngempahla komunye umuntu. Kodwa-ke, ngokubona okungokomthetho, obolekayo ungumnikezeli wempahla ebanjiswayo, kuyilapho iqembu elinikeza imalimboleko lingumnikazi wempahla ebanjiswayo. Ngakho-ke ibhange lingumnikazi wemalimboleko futhi umuntu ofuna ukuthenga indlu ngumhlinzeki wemalimboleko.

Isimo sempahla ebanjiswayo ukuthi imali ebanjiswayo ayikwazi ukuqedwa kuyo yonke impahla; ngokuya nge-athikili 3: 227 yeDutch Civil Code, imali mboleko ingasungulwa kuphela endaweni ebhalisiwe. Lapho kuthengiswa impahla ebhalisiwe, lokhu kudluliselwa kudinga ukubhaliswa kumarejista omphakathi. Kungemva kokubhalisa kuphela, impahla ebhalisiwe empeleni itholwa umthengi. Izibonelo zempahla ebhalisiwe ingumhlaba, izindlu, izikebhe nezindiza. Imoto akuyona impahla ebhalisiwe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, imali ebanjiswayo ingasungulwa kuphela ukuze kusizakale 'isimangalo esivumelekile ngokwanele'. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 3: 231 Dutch Civil Code. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kumele kucace maqondana nokuthi kubangwa kuphi ukwebiwa kwempahla. Uma okweletwayo enezimangalo ezimbili eziphikisana nomuntu okweletwayo, kufanele kucace maqondana nokuthi yiliphi kulawa mabango ilungelo elinikezwe. Ngaphezu kwalokho, umnikazi wepropathi okwethulwe imalimboleko yakhe uhlala umnikazi; ubunikazi abudluli ngemuva kokusungulwa kwelungelo lokuthenga imali. Impahla ehlala ihlala isungulwa ngokukhipha itayitela le-notarial.

Uma okweletwayo engazifezi izibopho zakhe zokukhokha, okweletwayo angasebenzisa ilungelo lakhe lokuthenga ngokuthengisa impahla asebethelelwa kuyo imalimboleko. Awukho umyalo wenkantolo odingekayo kulokhu. Lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi ukubulawa masishane futhi kutholakala kumbhalo 3: 268 waseDutch Civil Code. Kubalulekile ukukhumbula ukuthi okweletwayo angathengisa kuphela impahla ukuze afeze isimangalo sakhe; angahle angafanele impahla. Lokhu kwenqatshelwa kuchazwe ngokucacile ku-athikili 3: 235 ye-Dutch Civil Code. Isici esibalulekile semalimboleko ukuthi umnikazi wemalimboleko ubeka kuqala kunabanye ababolekisi abafisa ukumangalela lo mhlaba ukuze afeze izicelo zabo. Lokhu ngokusho kwendatshana 3: 227 Dutch Code Code. Ngesikhathi sokuqothuka, umnikazi wempahla ebanjiwe akudingeki ukuthi acabangele abanye abakweletwayo, kodwa angamane asebenzise ilungelo lakhe lokuthenga ngempahla. Ungowokubolekwa kuqala ongafeza isimangalo sakhe ngenzuzo evela ekuthengisweni kwempahla ebhalisiwe.

5.2. Isithembiso

Ilungelo lokuphepha eliqhathaniswa nempahla mboleko yisibambiso. Ngokuphikisana nemalimboleko yempahla ebanjiswayo, isibambiso asikwazi ukumiswa empahleni engagudluki. Kodwa-ke, isibambiso singasungulwa cishe kuyo yonke enye impahla, njengempahla eshukumisekayo, amalungelo okuba ngumphathi noma i-oda futhi ekuthatheni impahla noma ilungelo elinjalo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi isibambiso singasungulwa kuzo zombili izimoto nakumanani okufanele awathole kulabo abakweletwayo. Obolekayo usungula isibambiso ukuze athole ukuphepha ukuthi isimangalo sizokhokhelwa. Kuzoqedwa isivumelwano phakathi komuntu okweletwayo (umnikazi wesibambiso) nalowo obolekayo (umhlinzeki wesibambiso). Uma okweletwayo engahambisani nezibopho zakhe zokukhokha, okweletwayo unelungelo lokuthengisa impahla nokugcwalisa isicelo sakhe ngenzuzo yaso. Lapho okweletwayo ehluleka ukuhambisana nezibopho zakhe zokukhokha, okweletwayo angathengisa impahla ngokushesha. Ngokusho kwe-athikili 3: 248 ama-Dutch Civil Code, akukho myalelo wenkantolo odingekayo kulokhu, okusho ukuthi ukubulawa ngokushesha kuyasebenza. Kuyafana nempahla ebanjiswayo, lowo obolekayo akavumelekile ukuthi alungiselele impahla anikezwe yona ilungelo lesibambiso; angathengisa kuphela impahla leyo futhi afeze isicelo sakhe ngenzuzo. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 3: 235 Dutch Civil Code. Ngokuyinhloko, okweletwayo onelungelo lesibambiso ugxile kakhulu kwabanye obabolekayo uma kwenzeka eqothuka noma emisiwe ekukhokheni. Kodwa-ke, kungakhathaleka ukuthi isibambiso sokuphatha noma isithembiso esingaveziwe saphela.

5.2.1 Isibambiso sempahla ephansi kanye nesithembiso esingaveziwe

Isibambiso sokuthathwa kwempahla siqedwa lapho impahla 'ingena ngaphansi kokulawulwa kwesibambiso noma umuntu wesithathu'. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 3: 236 Dutch Civil Code. Lokhu kusho ukuthi impahla ethembisiwe idluliselwa kulowo okweletwayo; okweletwayo empeleni unempahla okungeyakhe phakathi nesikhathi isibambiso esiphikelela kuso. Isibambiso sobunikazi sisungulwa ngokuletha okuhle ngaphansi kokulawulwa kombolekayo. Okweletwayo kufanele anakekele impahla futhi angahle ayilondoloze. Lezi zindleko zokugcina kumele zibuyiselwe okweletayo.

Ngaphandle kwesibambiso sobunikazi, siphinde sibe nesibambiso esingavezwanga, esibizwa ngokuthi isibambiso esingezona impahla. Lokhu ngokusho kwendatshana 3: 237 Dutch Code Code. Lapho kusungulwa isibambiso esingacaciswanga, impahla ayilethwa ngaphansi kolawulo lomuntu okweletwayo, kodwa kudwetshwa itayitela elisho ukuthi isibambiso esingacaswanga sisungulwe. Lokhu kungaba yitayitali ye-notarial kanye ne-deed yangasese. Kodwa-ke, itayitela langasese lidinga ukubhaliswa kwi-notary noma kwabaphethe intela. Izithembiso ezingafakwanga zivame ukusetshenziswa yizinkampani ezifuna ukusungula isibambiso emshinini. Uma lo mshini ubungeke ulethwe ngumnikazi wesikweletu, inkampani ibizohluleka ukwenza imisebenzi yayo yebhizinisi.

Isibambiso sokuphatha abantu sakha ilungelo lokuphepha elinamandla kunesibambiso esingachazwanga. Lapho kwakhiwa isibambiso sobunikazi, okweletwayo usenayo impahla yakhe leyo. Lokhu akusikho lapho kusungulwa isibambiso esingachazwanga. Uma kunjalo, okweletwayo kufanele akholise okweletayo ukuthi amnikeze impahla. Ngabe okweletwayo uyakwenqaba lokhu, kungadingeka ngisho nokuphoqelela ukudluliselwa kokuhle enkantolo. Umehluko phakathi kwesibambiso esinezinto oziholayo nesibambiso esingadalulwanga futhi uneqhaza ekuqothulweni kanye nokumiswa kokukhokhelwa. Njengoba sekuxoxiwe kakade, okweletwayo unelungelo lokubulawa ngokushesha; angathengisa impahla ngokushesha ukuze afeze isimangalo sakhe. Futhi, abanikazi bezithembiso babekwa phambili kunabanye abakweletwayo ngaphakathi kokuqothuka. Kodwa-ke, kunomehluko phakathi kwesibambiso sobunikazi nesibambiso esingadalulwanga. Abaphethe isibambiso sokuphatha izinto nabo bagxile kakhulu kubaphathi bezentela lapho okweletayo eqothuka. Abaphethe isibambiso esingadalulwanga abanakubeka phambili kubaphathi bezintela; ilungelo leziphathimandla zentela linqoba ilungelo lomuntu ophethe isithembiso esingaziwa ngesikhathi sokuqothuka komkweletu. Ngakho-ke isibambiso sokuphatha sinikeza ukuphepha okwengeziwe ngesikhathi sokuqothuka kunesibambiso esingavezwanga.

6. Isiphetho

Lokhu okungenhla kufaka ukuthi kunezindlela ezimbalwa zokuthola ukuphepha kwezezimali: isikweletu esiningi, i-escrow, (inkampani yabazali) isiqinisekiso, isitatimende se-403 sokubolekwa kwempahla, isibambiso semalimboleko kanye nesibambiso. Ngokuyinhloko, lokhu kuvikelelwa kuhlale kuchazwe esivumelwaneni. Ezinye izibambiso zezezimali zingahlelwa ngendlela engenazakhiwo, ngokuya ngezifiso zenhlangano ngokwazo, ngenkathi ezinye izibambiso zezimali zingaphansi kwemibandela yezomthetho. Ngenxa yalokhu, izindlela ezahlukahlukene zokuphepha kwezezimali zonke zinenzuzo nobubi. Lokhu kusebenza kubo bobabili iqembu elidinga ukuphepha neqembu elihlinzeka ngezokuphepha. Ezinye izibambiso zezezimali zinikeza ukuvikela kakhulu kumbolekisi kunakwezinye, kepha kungahle kufike nezinye iziphikisi. Ngokuya ngesimo, kungaphethwa ngendlela efanele yokuphepha kwezezimali phakathi kwamaqembu.

[1] I-Escrow imvamisa ibizwa ngokuthi isiqinisekiso. Kodwa-ke, ngaphansi komthetho wamaDashi, kunezindlela ezimbili zokuphepha kwezezimali ezihumusha ukuze kuqinisekiswe ngesiNgisi. Ukugcina le ndatshana iqondakala, igama elithi escrow lizosetshenziselwa lokhu kuvikeleka kwezezimali.

[2] Igama elithi 'guarantor' lishiwo ku-escrow nakwisiqinisekiso. Kodwa-ke, incazelo yaleli gama incike kwilungelo lokuphepha elibandakanyekayo.

Ungahlukıselana