Amagama nemibandela ejwayelekile: okudingeka ukwazi

Uma uthenga okuthile esitolo sewebhu - noma ungakaze uthole ithuba lokukhokha ngogesi - uvame ukucelwa ukuba ufake uphawu ebhokisini lapho umemezela khona ukuthi uyavumelana nemigomo nemibandela yesitolo sewebhu. Uma uphawula lelo bhokisi ngaphandle kokufunda imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile, ungomunye wabaningi; akekho umuntu ozifundayo ngaphambi kokuthikha. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kuyingozi. Imibandela nemibandela ejwayelekile ingaqukatha okuqukethwe okungathandeki. Imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile, imayelana nani?

Imibandela nemibandela ejwayelekile ibizwa ngokuthi ukuphrinta okuncane kwesivumelwano. Zinemithetho eyengeziwe nemithetho ehamba nesivumelwano. KwiDashi Yekhodi YaseDashi umuntu angathola imithetho okufanele ahlangane nayo ngokwemibandela nemibandela ejwayelekile noma engakwazi ukuyicacisa ngokuqondile.

Isigaba 6: 231 sub a of the Dutch Civil Code sinikeza lencazelo elandelayo yemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile:

«Eyodwa noma ngaphezulu imitjhwana enzelwe ukuthi zifakwe kwinani lezivumelwano, ngaphandle kwa imitjhwana ukubhekana nezinto eziyisisekelo zesivumelwano, kuze kufike lapho lezi zinto zicacile futhi ziyaqondakalayo ».

Ekuqaleni, ubuciko. I-6: 231 sub a ye-Dutch Civil Code yakhuluma ngemishwana ebhaliwe. Kodwa-ke, ngokusetshenziswa kwe-Regulation 2000/31 / EG, ekubhekaneni ne-e-commerce, igama elithi «okubhaliwe» lasuswa. Lokhu kusho ukuthi imigomo nemibandela ebhekiswe ngqo ngamazwi isemthethweni futhi.

Umthetho ukhuluma nge «yomsebenzisi» kanye ne «iqembu eliphikisayo». Umsebenzisi nguyena osebenzisa imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile esivumelwaneni (art 6: 231 sub b of the Dutch Civil Code). Lokhu kuvame ukuba ngumuntu othengisa izimpahla. Iqembu eliphikisayo yilowo, ngokusayina idokhumenti ebhaliwe noma ngenye indlela, Iqinisekisa ukwamukela imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile (art 6: 231 sub c ye-Dutch Civil Code).

Izici okuthiwa zingumongo wesivumelwano aziwela ngaphansi komthetho wemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile. Lezi zinto aziyona ingxenye yemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile. Lokhu kunjalo lapho amagatshana akha umongo wesivumelwano. Uma kufakwe kwimithetho nemibandela ejwayelekile, ayisebenzi. Isici esiyisisekelo siphathelene nezinto zesivumelwano ezibaluleke kakhulu kangangokuba ngaphandle kwabo isivumelwano besingasoze satholakala injongo yokufaka lesi sivumelwano singeke satholakala.

Izibonelo zezihloko ezizotholakala ezintweni ezingumongo yilezi: umkhiqizo othengiswayo, intengo iqembu eliphikisayo okufanele likhokhe kanye nekhwalithi noma ubungako bezimpahla ezithengiswayo / ezithengiwe.

Inhloso yokulawulwa okungokomthetho kwemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile iphindwe kathathu:

  • Ukuqinisa ukulawulwa kokwahlulela kokuqukethwe kwemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile ukuvikela (counter) amaqembu lapho imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile isebenza, ikakhulukazi abathengi.
  • Ukuhlinzeka ngokuphepha okuphezulu okusemthethweni okuphathelene nokusebenza kanye (nokungamukeli) kokuqukethwe kwemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile.
  • Ukugqugquzela ukuxoxisana phakathi kwabasebenzisi bemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile futhi ngokwesibonelo izinhlangano ezihlose ukuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zalabo ababandakanyekayo, njengezinhlangano zabathengi.

Kuhle ukwazisa ukuthi imithetho yezomthetho ephathelene nemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile ayisebenzi kuzinkontileka zokuqashwa, izivumelwano ezihlanganisiwe zabasebenzi kanye nokuthengiselana kwamanye amazwe.

Lapho kudingidwa udaba oluhlobene nemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile enkantolo, umsebenzisi kufanele afakazele ubuqiniso bemibono yakhe. Isibonelo, angasho ukuthi imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile isetshenzisiwe ngaphambili kwezinye izivumelwano. Iphuzu eliphambili ekwahlulelweni yikuthi izinhlangothi ezinengqondo zingahambisana nemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile nalokho ezingakulindela komunye nomunye. Uma kwenzeka ungabaza, ukwakheka okuhle kakhulu kumthengi kuyabakhona (ubuciko 6: 238 isigatshana 2 se-Code Civil yaseDashi).

Umsebenzisi unesibopho sokwazisa iqembu eliphikisayo ngemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile (ubuciko 6: 234 beKhodi Yezwe yaseDashi). Angasifeza lesi sibopho ngokunikeza imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile eqenjini eliphikisayo (ubuciko 6: 234 isigatshana 1 se-Code Civil yaseDashi). Umsebenzisi kufanele akwazi ukufakazela ukuthi ukwenzile lokhu. Ukunikeza imali akwenzeki, umsebenzisi kumele, ngaphambi kwesivumelwano kusethiwe, azise iqembu eliphikisayo ukuthi kunemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile nokuthi lapho etholakala khona futhi ifundwe khona, ngokwesibonelo eChamber of Commerce noma ekuphathweni kwenkantolo (ubuciko) . 6: 234 isigatshana 1 se-Dutch Civil Code) noma angazithumela ephathini lapho ebuzwa.

Lokho kufanele kwenziwe ngokushesha nangezindleko zomsebenzisi. Uma kungenjalo inkantolo ingamemezela imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile ayisebenzi (ubuciko 6: 234 beKhodi Yezwe yaseDashi), uma nje umsebenzisi angahlangabezana nale mfuneko. Ukunikeza ukufinyelela imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile nakho kungenziwa ngogesi. Lokhu kuxazululwe kubuciko. I-6: 234 isigatshana 2 no-3 seKhodi YamaDashi. Kunoma ikuphi, ukuhlinzekwa nge-elekthronikhi kuvunyelwe lapho isivumelwano sasungulwa ngogesi.

Uma kwenzeka kuhlinzekwa ngogesi, iqembu eliphikisayo kumele likwazi ukugcina imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile futhi linikezwe isikhathi esanele sokuzifunda. Lapho isivumelwano singasungulwa nge-elekthronikhi, iqembu eliphikisayo kumele livumelane nokunikezwa nge-elekthronikhi (ubuciko 6: 234 isigatshana sesi-3 seKhodi YamaDashi).

Ingabe umthethonqubo ochazwe ngenhla uyasebenza? Kusuka kwisinqumo seNkantolo Ephakeme yaseDashi (ECLI: NL: HR: 1999: ZC2977: Geurtzen / Kampstaal) kungenzeka ukuthi umthethonqubo ubuhloselwe ukuqeda amandla. Kodwa-ke, uma kuchitshiyelwa iNkantolo eNkulu ngokwayo ikhipha lesi sinqumo. Kulesiichibiyelo kuthiwa lapho umuntu engafunga ukuthi iqembu eliphikisayo liyazi noma lingalindeleke ukuba lazi imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile, ukumemezela imigomo nemibandela evamile akuyona inketho.

I-Dutch Civil Code ayisho ukuthi yini okufanele ifakwe kumigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile, kodwa iyasho ukuthi yini engafakwa. Njengoba kushiwo ngenhla, lokhu kungenye yezinto eziyisisekelo zesivumelwano, njengomkhiqizo othengwayo, inani nentengo yesivumelwano. Ngaphezu kwalokho, a uhlu olumnyama futhi uhlu olimpunga asetshenziswa ekuhlolweni (ubuciko 6: 236 kanye nobuciko 6: 237 beDutch Civil Code) equkethe izigatshana ezingenangqondo. Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi uhlu lwabansundu kanye nolwempunga luyasebenza uma imigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile isebenza kwizivumelwano eziphakathi kwenkampani nomthengi (B2C).

The uhlu olumnyama (art.6: 236 ye-Dutch Civil Code) iqukethe izigatshana, lapho zifakiwe kwimigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile, ezithathwa njengezingenangqondo ngokomthetho.

Uhlu olumnyama lunezingxenye ezintathu:

  1. Imithetho ekhipha iqembu eliphikisayo amalungelo namakhono. Isibonelo ukudicilelwa phansi kwelungelo lokugcwaliseka (ubuc. 6: 236 sub a of the Dutch Civil Code) noma ukubekwa eceleni noma ukunqunyelwa kwelungelo lokuqeda isivumelwano (ubuciko 6: 236 sub b beDutch Civil Code).
  2. Imithetho enika umsebenzisi amalungelo noma amakhono athile. Isibonelo, isigatshana esivumela umsebenzisi ukuthi akhuphule inani lentengo lomkhiqizo kungakapheli izinyanga ezintathu ngemuva kokungena esivumelwaneni, ngaphandle kokuthi iqembu eliphikisayo livunyelwe ukuqeda isivumelwano kuleso sivumelwano (ubuc. 6: 236 sub i seDashi Civil Ikhodi).
  3. Imithetho ehlukahlukene yenani elihlukile lobufakazi (ubuciko 6: 236 sub k of the Dutch Civil Code). Isibonelo, ukuqhubeka okuzenzakalelayo kokubhaliselwe kwijenali noma ngezikhathi ezithile, ngaphandle kwenqubo elungile yokukhansela okubhaliselwe (art.6: 236 sub p and q of the Dutch Civil Code).

The uhlu olimpunga yemigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile (art.6: 237 ye-Dutch Civil Code) iqukethe imithethonqubo, lapho ifakiwe kwimigomo nemibandela ejwayelekile, ethathwa njengomthwalo ongafanele. Lawo magatshana awasho ukuthi umthwalo ngamunye awunangqondo.

Izibonelo zalokhu yimigatshana ebandakanya umkhawulo obalulekile wezibopho zomsebenzisi maqondana neqembu eliphikisayo (ubuciko 6: 237 sub b be-Dutch Civil Code), imishwana evumela umsebenzisi isikhathi esingajwayelekile sokugcwaliseka kwesivumelwano ( ubuciko 6: 237 sub e of the Dutch Civil Code) noma imishwana ebeka iqembu eliphikisayo isikhathi eside sokukhanselwa kunomsebenzisi (ubuciko. 6: 237 sub l of the Dutch Civil Code).

Contact

Uma kwenzeka uneminye imibuzo noma ukuphawula ngemuva kokufunda le ndatshana, zizwe ukhululekile ukuxhumana noMnu. UMaxim Hodak, ummeli-womthetho ku- Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl or mr. Tom Meevis, attorney-at-law at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl or call us on +31 (0)40-3690680.

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