Izehlukaniso zomhlaba wonke

Kwakuvamise ukuba isiko ukushada nomuntu wesizwe esifanayo noma onemvelaphi efanayo. Kulezi zinsuku imishado yabantu bezizwe ezahlukahlukene isiyanda kakhulu. Ngeshwa, imishado engama-40% eNetherlands iphela ngesehlukaniso. Lokhu kusebenza kanjani uma umuntu ehlala kwelinye izwe kunaleli abangene kulo emshadweni?

Izehlukaniso zomhlaba wonke

Ukwenza isicelo ngaphakathi kwe-EU

Umthethonqubo (EC) ongu-2201/2003 (noma: weBrussels II bis) ubusebenza kuwo wonke amazwe akwi-EU kusukela ngomhlaka 1 Mashi 2015. Ulawula amandla, ukuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa kwezahlulelo ezindabeni zomshado kanye nesibopho somzali. Imithetho ye-EU isebenza esehlukanisweni, ekwehlukaneni ngokomthetho nasekuchithweni komshado. Ngaphakathi kwe-EU, isicelo sesehlukaniso singafakwa ezweni lapho inkantolo inamandla khona. Inkantolo inegunya ezweni:

  • Lapho bobabili abashadayo behlala khona.
  • Kubo bobabili abashadikazi bangabezizwe.
  • Lapho isehlukaniso sisetshenziswa ndawonye.
  • Lapho omunye umlingani enza isicelo sesehlukaniso kanti omunye uhlala ejwayele ukuhlala.
  • Lapho umlingani abejwayele ukuhlala okungenani izinyanga eziyisithupha futhi eyisizwe sezwe. Uma engeyena owesizwe, isicelo singafakwa uma lo muntu esehlale ezweni okungenani unyaka owodwa.
  • Lapho omunye wozakwethu agcina ukuhlala khona nalapho omunye wozakwethu esahlala khona.

Ngaphakathi kwe-EU, inkantolo eqala ukuthola isicelo sesehlukaniso esihlangabezana nemibandela inamandla okuthatha isinqumo ngesahlukaniso. Inkantolo ekhipha isehlukaniso nayo inganquma ngokunikezwa kwabazali izingane ezihlala ezweni lenkantolo. Imithetho ye-EU ngesahlukaniso ayisebenzi eDenmark ngoba iBrussels II bis Regulation ayizange yamukelwe lapho.

ENetherlands

Uma lo mbhangqwana ungahlali eNetherlands, empeleni kungenzeka kuphela ukuhlukanisa eNetherlands uma abashadikazi bobabili benobuzwe baseDashi. Uma lokhu kungenjalo, inkantolo yaseDashi ingazisholo ukuthi inekhono ngaphansi kwezimo ezikhethekile, ngokwesibonelo uma kungenakwenzeka ukuhlukanisa phesheya. Noma ngabe abashadikazi bashade phesheya, bangafaka isicelo sesehlukaniso eNetherlands. Umbandela wukuthi umshado ubhaliswe endaweni yokubhalisa yomphakathi yendawo yokuhlala eNetherlands. Imiphumela yesehlukaniso ingahluka phesheya. Isinqumo sesehlukaniso esivela ezweni le-EU samukelwa ngokuzenzekelayo ngamanye amazwe e-EU. Ngaphandle kwe-EU lokhu kungahluka kakhulu.

Isehlukaniso singaba nemiphumela yesimo sokuhlala kothile eNetherlands. Uma umlingani enemvume yokuhlala ngoba wayehlala nomlingani wakhe eNetherlands, kubalulekile ukuthi afake isicelo semvume yokuhlala ngaphansi kwezimo ezihlukile. Uma lokhu kungenzeki, imvume yokuhlala ingahoxiswa.

Yimuphi umthetho osebenzayo?

Umthetho wezwe lapho kufakwa khona isicelo sedivosi ngeke usebenze esahlukanisweni. Inkantolo kungadingeka ukuthi isebenzise umthetho wezangaphandle. Lokhu kwenzeka kaningi eNetherlands. Engxenyeni ngayinye yecala kufanele ihlolwe ukuthi ngabe inkantolo inamandla nokuthi yimuphi umthetho okufanele usetshenziswe. Umthetho wamazwe omhlaba wangasese udlala indima ebalulekile kulokhu. Lo mthetho yisikhathi sesambulela sezindawo zomthetho lapho kuthinteka khona izwe elingaphezu kwelilodwa. Ngo-1 Januwari 2012, iNcwadi 10 yeDutch Civil Code yaqala ukusebenza eNetherlands. Lokhu kuqukethe imithetho yomthetho wangasese wamazwe omhlaba. Umthetho omkhulu ngukuthi inkantolo yaseNetherlands isebenzisa umthetho wedivosi waseDashi, kungakhathalekile ubuzwe nendawo yokuhlala kwalabo abashadile. Lokhu kwehlukile lapho izithandani sezirekhodelwe umthetho wazo. Abashadile bazobe sebekhetha umthetho osebenzayo ezinkambisweni zabo zesehlukaniso. Lokhu kungenziwa ngaphambi kokungeniswa komshado, kepha kungenziwa futhi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Lokhu kungenzeka futhi uma usuzohlukanisa.

Umthethonqubo emibusweni yempahla yomshado

Emishadweni engenwe ngomhla ka-29 Januwari 2019 noma ngemuva kwayo, kuzosebenza i-Regulation (EU) No 2016/1103. Lo mthetho ulawula umthetho osebenzayo kanye nokuphoqelelwa kwezinqumo ezindabeni zemibuso yempahla yomshado. Imithetho ebekwa yiyona enquma ukuthi yiziphi izinkantolo ezingakhipha isinqumo ngempahla yabashadile (amandla), yimuphi umthetho osebenzayo (ukungqubuzana kwemithetho) nokuthi ngabe isinqumo esikhishwe yinkantolo yezwe elithile kufanele samukelwe futhi siphoqelelwe esinye (ukuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa). Ngokomthetho, inkantolo efanayo isenamandla ngokomthetho waseBrussels IIa Regulation. Uma kungekho mthetho okhethiwe, umthetho weHulumeni lapho abashadikazi benendawo yabo yokuhlala yokuqala izosebenza. Uma kungekho ndawo yokuhlala ejwayelekile, umthetho weHulumeni wobuzwe babo bobabili abashadile uzosebenza. Uma abashadile bengenabo ubuzwe obufanayo, kuzosebenza umthetho Wezwe lapho abashadikazi abasondelene kakhulu nabo.

Umthethonqubo ngakho-ke usebenza kuphela empahleni yomshado. Imithetho inquma ukuthi kufanele kusetshenziswe umthetho waseDashi, ngakho-ke umphakathi ojwayelekile wempahla noma umphakathi olinganiselwe wempahla noma uhlelo lwangaphandle. Lokhu kungaba nemiphumela eminingi ezimpahleni zakho. Ngakho-ke kuwukuhlakanipha ukuthola iseluleko sezomthetho, ngokwesibonelo, ngesivumelwano somthetho ongakhethwa.

Ukuthola izeluleko ngaphambi komshado wakho noma ukuthola izeluleko nosizo lapho kwenzeka isehlukaniso, ungaxhumana nabameli bomndeni baka Law & More. At Law & More Siyaqonda ukuthi isehlukaniso nemicimbi elandelayo ingaba nemiphumela efinyelela kude empilweni yakho. Kungakho sithatha indlela yomuntu siqu. Ngokubambisana nawe futhi mhlawumbe nalowo owake waba ngumlingani wakho, singanquma isimo sakho sezomthetho ngesikhathi senhlolokhono ngesisekelo semibhalo bese sizama ukuqopha umbono wakho noma izifiso zakho. Ngaphezu kwalokho, singakusiza kunqubo engenzeka. Abameli ku Law & More bangongoti emkhakheni wezomthetho womuntu siqu nowomndeni futhi bayakujabulela ukukuqondisa, mhlawumbe ndawonye nomlingani wakho, ngenqubo yesehlukaniso.

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