Isikweletu sabaqondisi eThe Netherlands

Isingeniso

Ukuqala inkampani yakho kungumsebenzi okhangayo wabantu abaningi futhi kuza nezinzuzo eziningana. Kodwa-ke, yini (osasa) osomabhizinisi abakubukela phansi, iqiniso lokuthi ukusungula inkampani kuza nezinkinga nobungozi. Lapho inkampani isungulwe ngendlela yebhizinisi elisemthethweni, ubungozi bezikweletu zabaqondisi lukhona.

Ibhizinisi elisemthethweni liyinhlangano yomthetho ehlukile enobuntu obungokomthetho. Ngakho-ke, ibhizinisi elisemthethweni liyakwazi ukwenza izenzo zomthetho. Ukuze ufeze lokhu, inhlangano esemthethweni idinga usizo. Njengoba ibhizinisi elisemthethweni likhona ephepheni kuphela, ngeke lisebenze lodwa. Inhlangano esemthethweni kufanele ivezwe ngumuntu wemvelo. Empeleni, ibhizinisi elisemthethweni limelelwa yibhodi yabaqondisi. Abaqondisi bangenza izinyathelo zomthetho egameni lebhizinisi elisemthethweni. Umqondisi ubopha kuphela ibhizinisi elisemthethweni ngalezi zenzo. Ngokuyinhloko, umqondisi akabi nesikweletu sezikweletu zebhizinisi elisemthethweni ngempahla yakhe siqu. Kodwa-ke, kwezinye izimo isikweletu sabaqondisi singaba khona, lapho umqondisi eba nesibopho sakhe uqobo. Kunezinhlobo ezimbili zesibopho sabaqondisi: isikweletu sangaphakathi nangaphandle. Lo mbhalo udingida izizathu ezahlukahlukene zokubekwa icala kwabaqondisi.

Isikweletu sangaphakathi sabaqondisi

Izikweletu zangaphakathi zisho ukuthi umphathi uzobanjwa yinkampani yezomthetho ngokwayo. Isikweletu sangaphakathi sisuselwa ku-athikili 2: 9 Ikhodi Yezwe YaseDashi. Umqondisi angaboshwa ngaphakathi uma enza imisebenzi yakhe ngendlela engafanele. Ukugcwaliseka ngokungafanele kwemisebenzi kuthathwa lapho kungamangalelwa kakhulu umqondisi. Lokhu kusekelwe ku-athikili 2: I-9 Code YaseDashi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kungenzeka ukuthi umqondisi akazange abe budedengu ekuthatheni izinyathelo zokuvikela ukwenzeka kwabaphathi abangafanele. Sikhuluma nini ngokumangalelwa okunzima? Ngokomthetho wamacala lokhu kudinga ukuhlolwa ngokuthatha zonke izimo zecala.[1]

Ukwenza okuphambene nemibhalo yokufakwa kwebhizinisi elisemthethweni kufakwa ngaphansi kwesimo esinzima. Uma lokhu kunjalo, umgomo wabaqondisi ngokuqinisekile uzothathwa. Kodwa-ke, umqondisi angaletha amaqiniso nezimo ezikhomba ukuthi ukwenza okuphambene nemibhalo yokufaka akubangeli ukumangalelwa kanzima. Uma kunjalo, umahluleli kufanele akucacisele ngokusobala lokhu ekwahlulelweni kwakhe.[2]

Izikweletu eziningana zangaphakathi kanye nokuzibandakanya

Isikweletu esuselwe kunqaku 2: 9 i-Dutch Civil Code sifaka ukuthi ngokomthetho bonke abaqondisi banesikweletu esibi. Ngakho-ke, izinsolo ezibucayi ziyofakwa kuzo zonke izinhlaka zabaqondisi. Noma kunjalo, kukhona okuhlukile kulo mthetho. Umqondisi angazikhipha ('axolise') ngokwakhe esikweletini sabaqondisi. Ukuze enze lokhu, umqondisi kufanele akhombise ukuthi angeke abekwe yena icala futhi ubenganaki ekuthatheni izinyathelo zokuvikela ukuphathwa okungafanele. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2: 9 seDashi Civil Code. Isikhalazo ngokushawa kwempahla ngeke samukelwe kalula. Umqondisi kufanele akhombise ukuthi uthathe zonke izinyathelo ngamandla akhe ukuze avikele ukuphathwa okungafanele. Umthwalo wobufakazi ulele kumqondisi.

Ukuhlukaniswa kwemisebenzi ngaphakathi kwebhodi yabaqondisi kungabaluleka kakhulu ukuthola ukuthi ngabe umqondisi unesibopho sokukhokha noma cha. Kodwa-ke, eminye imisebenzi ibhekwa njengemisebenzi ebaluleke kubo bonke abaqondisi bebhodi. Abaqondisi kufanele bazi ngamaqiniso athile kanye nezimo ezithile. Ukwehlukaniswa kwemisebenzi akukuguquli lokhu. Empeleni, ukungakwazi ukugcwala akusona isizathu sokuchayeka. Abaqondisi kulindeleke ukuthi baziswe kahle futhi babuze imibuzo. Kodwa-ke, izimo zingavela lapho lokhu kungenakulindeleka kumqondisi.[3] Ngakho-ke, noma ngabe umqondisi angazishonisa ngokwakhe ngempumelelo, kuncike kakhulu emaqinisweni nasezimeni zecala.

Isikweletu sangaphandle sabaqondisi

Izikweletu zangaphandle zifaka ukuthi umqondisi unesikweletu kubantu besithathu. Isikweletu sangaphandle sigobhoza iveyili yenkampani. Ibhizinisi elisemthethweni alisavikeli abantu bemvelo abangabaqondisi. Izizathu ezingokomthetho zezikweletu zabaqondisi bangaphandle ukuphathwa okungafanele, ngokusekelwe kumbhalo we-2: 138 waseDashi Civil Code nasencwadini 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code (ngaphakathi kokuqothuka) kanye nesenzo sokuhlukunyezwa ngokusekelwe kumbhalo we-6: 162 waseDutch Civil Code (ngaphandle kokuqothuka ).

Isikweletu sangaphandle sabaqondisi ngaphakathi kokuqothuka

Isikweletu sabaqondisi bangaphandle ngaphakathi kokuqothuka sisebenza ezinkampanini ezizimele ezikhawulelwe isikweletu (i-Dutch BV ne-NV). Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code kanye nesihloko 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Abaqondisi bangabekwa icala uma ukuqothuka kubangelwe ukuphathwa kabi noma amaphutha ebhodi yabaqondisi. I-curator, emelela bonke abakweletwayo, kufanele iphenye ukuthi ngabe isibopho sabaqondisi singasebenza noma cha.

Izikweletu zangaphandle ngaphakathi kokuqothuka zingamukelwa lapho ibhodi labaqondisi selifeze ngokungafanele imisebenzi yalo futhi lokhu kugcwaliseka okungafanele ngokusobala kuyimbangela ebalulekile yokuqothuka. Umthwalo wobufakazi maqondana nokugcwaliswa okungafanele kwemisebenzi kulele kumgcini; kufanele enze kucace ukuthi umphathi ocabanga ngokunengqondo, ngaphansi kwezimo ezifanayo, wayengeke enze ngale ndlela.[4] Izenzo ezonakalisa abakweletwayo ngokomthetho zidala ukuphathwa okungafanele. Ukuhlukumeza abaqondisi kumele kuvinjelwe.

Isishayamthetho sifake imibono ethile yobufakazi kumbhalo 2: 138 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code and 2: 248 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code. Lapho ibhodi labaqondisi lingahambisani nendatshana 2: 10 I-Dutch Civil Code noma i-athikili 2: 394 yeKhodi YaseDashi, kuba khona ubufakazi. Kulokhu, kucatshangwa ukuthi ukuphathwa ngokungafanele kube yimbangela ebalulekile yokuqothuka kwemali. Lokhu kudlulisela umthwalo wobufakazi kumqondisi. Kodwa-ke, abaqondisi bangaphikisana nokuqagelwa kobufakazi. Ukuze wenze lokhu, umqondisi kufanele enze kucace ukuthi ukuqothuka akubangelwa ukuphathwa okungafanele, kodwa ngamanye amaqiniso nezimo. Umqondisi kufanele futhi akhombise ukuthi ubenganakanga budedengu ekuthatheni izinyathelo zokuvikela ukuphathwa okungafanele.[5] Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-curator ingafaka isimangalo sesikhathi seminyaka emithathu ngaphambi kokuqothuka. Lokhu kususelwa esihlokweni 2: 138 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code and Article 2: 248 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code.

Izikweletu eziningana zangaphandle kanye nokudlanga

Wonke umphathi ubhekene nesibopho sokuphatha okusobala ngokungafanele ekuqothulweni. Kodwa-ke, abaqondisi bangaphunyuka kulokhu kukhubazeka okuningana ngokuzifukula ngokwabo. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2: 138 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code and Article 2: 248 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code. Umqondisi kufanele afakazele ukuthi ukugcwaliswa okungafanele kwemisebenzi akunakubanjwa kuye. Kungenzeka futhi ukuthi akazange abe budedengu ekuthatheni izinyathelo zokugwema imiphumela yokugcwaliseka okungafanele kwemisebenzi. Umthwalo wobufakazi ekushayweni kwendle ulele kumqondisi. Lokhu kutholakala ezihlokweni ezishiwo ngenhla futhi kusungulwe emthethweni wamacala wakamuva weNkantolo Ephakeme yaseDashi.[6]

Isikweletu sangaphandle ngokusekelwe esenzweni sokuhlushwa

Abaqondisi nabo bangabekwa icala ngokusekelwe esenzweni sokuhlukunyezwa, esivela kumbhalo we-6: 162 waseDutch Civil Code. Le ndatshana inikezela ngesisekelo esivamile sesikweletu. Izikweletu zabaqondisi ngokusekelwe esenzweni sokuhlushwa nazo zingadonswa ngumuntu okweletwayo ngamunye.

Inkantolo Ephakeme yaseDashi ihlukanisa izinhlobo ezimbili zesikweletu sabaqondisi ngokususelwa esenzweni sokuhlukunyezwa. Okokuqala, isikweletu singemukelwa ngesisekelo se-Beklamel standard. Kulokhu, umqondisi ungene esivumelwaneni nomuntu wesithathu egameni lenkampani, ngenkathi azi noma kufanele ukuthi bekufanele aqonde ukuthi inkampani ayikwazi ukulandela izibopho ezithathwe kulesi sivumelwano.[7] Uhlobo lwesibili lwesibopho ukukhathazeka ngezinsizakusebenza. Kulokhu, umqondisi udale ukuthi inkampani ayibakhokhi abakweletwayo futhi ayikwazi ukufeza izibopho zayo zokukhokha. Izenzo zomqondisi azinandaba kangako, ukuthi kungamangalelwa kanzima.[8] Umthwalo wobufakazi kulokhu ulele nalowo okweletwayo.

Isikweletu somqondisi webhizinisi elisemthethweni

ENetherlands, umuntu wemvelo kanye nenhlangano esemthethweni angaba ngumqondisi wenhlangano esemthethweni. Ukwenza izinto zibe lula, umuntu wemvelo ongumqondisi uzobizwa ngokuthi umqondisi wemvelo bese kuthi inhlangano yezomthetho engumqondisi ibizwe ngokuthi ngumqondisi wenhlangano kule ndima. Ukuthi ibhizinisi elisemthethweni lingaba ngumqondisi, akusho ukuthi isikweletu sabaqondisi singagwenywa nje ngokuqokwa kwebhizinisi elisemthethweni njengomqondisi. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2:11 Ikhodi Yombuso WaseDashi. Lapho umqondisi webhizinisi ephethwe enecala, lesi sikweletu sikhona nabaqondisi bemvelo balo mqondisi webhizinisi.

Isigaba 2: I-Dutch Civil Code isebenza ezimeni lapho ukuthathwa kwesibopho sabaqondisi kususelwa kuncwadi 11: 2 IDenmark YaseDashi, isihloko 9: 2 IDenmark Code yaseDashi kanye nesihloko 138: 2 seDutch Civil Code. Kodwa-ke, kuphakame imibuzo yokuthi ngabe i-athikili 248: 2 ye-Dutch Civil Code iyasebenza yini ezikweletini zabaqondisi ngokususelwa esenzweni sokuhlushwa. Inkantolo Ephakeme yaseDashi inqume ukuthi kunjalo impela. Kulesi sinqumo, iNkantolo Ephakeme yaseDashi ikhomba umlando osemthethweni. Isigaba 11: I-Dutch Civil Code ihlose ukuvikela abantu bemvelo ukuthi bacashe ngemuva kwabaqondisi bebhizinisi ukuze bagweme isikweletu. Lokhu kufaka ukuthi leyo ndatshana 2: 11 ye-Dutch Civil Code isebenza kuwo wonke amacala lapho umqondisi webhizinisi angabekwa khona icala ngokulandela umthetho.[9]

Ukulahlwa kwebhodi yabaqondisi

Isikweletu sabaqondisi singaphazanyiswa ngokunikeza ukukhululwa ebhodini labaqondisi. Ukulahlwa kusho ukuthi inqubomgomo yebhodi yabaqondisi, njengoba yenziwe kuze kube isikhathi sokukhululwa, ivunyelwe yinhlangano esemthethweni. Ukukhishwa ngakho-ke kususa isikweletu kubaqondisi. Ukulahla akuyona igama elingatholakala emthethweni, kepha kuvame ukufakwa ezincwadini zokufakwa kwebhizinisi elisemthethweni. Ukulahla kungukuwa kwesibopho kwangaphakathi kwesikweletu. Ngakho-ke, ukukhipha kusebenza kuphela kwisikweletu sangaphakathi. Amaqembu esithathu asakwazi ukudonsa umthwalo wabaqondisi.

Ukulahla kusebenza kuphela kumaqiniso kanye nezimo ezazaziwa ngabaninimasheya ngesikhathi sokukhululwa.[10] Isikweletu samaqiniso angaziwa sisazobakhona. Ngakho-ke, ukukhishwa akukona amaphesenti ayikhulu aphephile futhi akunikezeli iziqinisekiso zabaqondisi.

Isiphetho

Ubusomabhizinisi bungaba umsebenzi oyinselele futhi ojabulisayo, kodwa ngeshwa uza nezingozi. Osomabhizinisi abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi bangasusa isikweletu ngokuqala ibhizinisi elisemthethweni. Labo somabhizinisi bazobe bedumele; ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile, isikweletu sabaqondisi singasebenza. Lokhu kungaba nemiphumela ebanzi; umqondisi uzokhokha izikweletu zenkampani ngempahla yakhe yangasese. Ngakho-ke, izingozi ezitholakala kwisikweletu sabaqondisi akufanele ziyaneliswa. Kungaba ukuhlakanipha kwabaqondisi bezinhlangano zezomthetho ukuthi bathobele yonke imigomo engokomthetho futhi baphathe ibhizinisi elisemthethweni ngendlela evulekile nangamabomu.

Uhlobo oluphelele lwalesi sihloko luyatholakala ngalesi sixhumanisi

Contact

Uma unemibuzo noma ukuphawula ngemuva kokufunda le ndatshana, sicela ukhululeke ukuxhumana noMaxim Hodak, ummeli lapho Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or Tom Meevis, lawyer at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2002: AE7011 (Berghuizer Papierfabriek).

[3] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2010: BN6929.

[4] ECLI: NL: HR: 2001: AB2053 (Panmo).

[5] ECLI: NL: HR: 2007: BA6773 (Blue Tomato).

[6] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (Glascentrale Beheer BV).

[7] ECLI: NL: HR: 1989: AB9521 (Beklamel).

[8] ECLI: NL: HR: 2006: AZ0758 (Ontvanger / Roelofsen).

[9] ECLI: NL: HR: 2017: 275.

[10] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven); ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM2332.

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