Isikweletu sabaqondisi eThe Netherlands

Isingeniso

Ukuqala inkampani yakho kungumsebenzi okhangayo wabantu abaningi futhi kuza nezinzuzo eziningana. Kodwa-ke, yini (osasa) osomabhizinisi abakubukela phansi, iqiniso lokuthi ukusungula inkampani kuza nezinkinga nobungozi. Lapho inkampani isungulwe ngendlela yebhizinisi elisemthethweni, ubungozi bezikweletu zabaqondisi lukhona.

Ibhizinisi elisemthethweni liyinhlangano yomthetho ehlukile enobuntu obungokomthetho. Ngakho-ke, ibhizinisi elisemthethweni liyakwazi ukwenza izenzo zomthetho. Ukuze ufeze lokhu, inhlangano esemthethweni idinga usizo. Njengoba ibhizinisi elisemthethweni likhona ephepheni kuphela, ngeke lisebenze lodwa. Inhlangano esemthethweni kufanele ivezwe ngumuntu wemvelo. Empeleni, ibhizinisi elisemthethweni limelelwa yibhodi yabaqondisi. Abaqondisi bangenza izinyathelo zomthetho egameni lebhizinisi elisemthethweni. Umqondisi ubopha kuphela ibhizinisi elisemthethweni ngalezi zenzo. Ngokuyinhloko, umqondisi akabi nesikweletu sezikweletu zebhizinisi elisemthethweni ngempahla yakhe siqu. Kodwa-ke, kwezinye izimo isikweletu sabaqondisi singaba khona, lapho umqondisi eba nesibopho sakhe uqobo. Kunezinhlobo ezimbili zesibopho sabaqondisi: isikweletu sangaphakathi nangaphandle. Lo mbhalo udingida izizathu ezahlukahlukene zokubekwa icala kwabaqondisi.

Isikweletu sangaphakathi sabaqondisi

Isibopho sangaphakathi sisho ukuthi umqondisi uzobekwa icala yisikhungo esisemthethweni uqobo. Isikweletu sangaphakathi sivela ku-athikili 2: 9 Ikhodi Yombango yaseDashi. Umqondisi angabekwa icala ngaphakathi lapho efeza imisebenzi yakhe ngendlela engafanele. Ukugcwaliswa okungafanele kwemisebenzi kucatshangelwa lapho kungenziwa icala elinzima ngokumelene nomqondisi. Lokhu kusekelwe ku-athikili 2: 9 Dutch Civil Code. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kungenzeka ukuthi umqondisi akazange abe budedengu ekuthatheni izinyathelo ukuvimbela ukwenzeka kokuphathwa okungafanele. Sikhuluma nini ngokumangalelwa okunzima? Ngokomthetho wamacala lokhu kudingeka kuhlolwe ngokubheka zonke izimo zecala. [1]

Ukwenza okuphambene nezindatshana zokufakwa kwebhizinisi elisemthethweni kubhekwa njengesimo esinzima. Uma kunjalo, kuzocatshangelwa isikweletu sabaqondisi. Kodwa-ke, umqondisi angaletha amaqiniso nezimo okukhombisa ukuthi ukwenza okuphambene nezindatshana zokufakwa akubanga ukumangalelwa okunzima. Uma kunjalo, ijaji kufanele likufake ngokusobala lokhu esahlulelweni salo. [2]

Izikweletu eziningana zangaphakathi kanye nokuzibandakanya

Isikweletu esuselwe kunqaku 2: 9 i-Dutch Civil Code sifaka ukuthi ngokomthetho bonke abaqondisi banesikweletu esibi. Ngakho-ke, izinsolo ezibucayi ziyofakwa kuzo zonke izinhlaka zabaqondisi. Noma kunjalo, kukhona okuhlukile kulo mthetho. Umqondisi angazikhipha ('axolise') ngokwakhe esikweletini sabaqondisi. Ukuze enze lokhu, umqondisi kufanele akhombise ukuthi angeke abekwe yena icala futhi ubenganaki ekuthatheni izinyathelo zokuvikela ukuphathwa okungafanele. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2: 9 seDashi Civil Code. Isikhalazo ngokushawa kwempahla ngeke samukelwe kalula. Umqondisi kufanele akhombise ukuthi uthathe zonke izinyathelo ngamandla akhe ukuze avikele ukuphathwa okungafanele. Umthwalo wobufakazi ulele kumqondisi.

Ukwahlukaniswa kwemisebenzi ngaphakathi kwebhodi labaqondisi kungabaluleka ukunquma ukuthi umqondisi unesibopho noma cha. Kodwa-ke, eminye imisebenzi ithathwa njengemisebenzi ebaluleke kuyo yonke ibhodi yabaqondisi. Abaqondisi kufanele bazi amaqiniso nezimo ezithile. Ukuhlukaniswa kwemisebenzi akukushintshi lokhu. Ngokuyinhloko, ukungakwazi ukusebenza akusona isizathu sokuzijabulisa. Abaqondisi kungalindelwa ukuthi baziswe kahle futhi babuze imibuzo. Kodwa-ke, kungenzeka izimo lapho lokhu kungeke kulindelwe kumqondisi. [3] Ngakho-ke, ukuthi umqondisi angakwazi yini ukuzixolela ngempumelelo noma cha, kuncike kakhulu kumaqiniso nezimo zecala.

Isikweletu sangaphandle sabaqondisi

Izikweletu zangaphandle zifaka ukuthi umqondisi unesikweletu kubantu besithathu. Isikweletu sangaphandle sigobhoza iveyili yenkampani. Ibhizinisi elisemthethweni alisavikeli abantu bemvelo abangabaqondisi. Izizathu ezingokomthetho zezikweletu zabaqondisi bangaphandle ukuphathwa okungafanele, ngokusekelwe kumbhalo we-2: 138 waseDashi Civil Code nasencwadini 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code (ngaphakathi kokuqothuka) kanye nesenzo sokuhlukunyezwa ngokusekelwe kumbhalo we-6: 162 waseDutch Civil Code (ngaphandle kokuqothuka ).

Isikweletu sangaphandle sabaqondisi ngaphakathi kokuqothuka

Isikweletu sabaqondisi bangaphandle ngaphakathi kokuqothuka sisebenza ezinkampanini ezizimele ezikhawulelwe isikweletu (i-Dutch BV ne-NV). Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2: 138 Dutch Civil Code kanye nesihloko 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Abaqondisi bangabekwa icala uma ukuqothuka kubangelwe ukuphathwa kabi noma amaphutha ebhodi yabaqondisi. I-curator, emelela bonke abakweletwayo, kufanele iphenye ukuthi ngabe isibopho sabaqondisi singasebenza noma cha.

Isikweletu sangaphandle sokuqothuka singamukelwa lapho ibhodi labaqondisi liyifeze ngokungafanele imisebenzi yalo futhi lokhu kufezeka okungafanele kuyimbangela ebalulekile yokuqothuka. Umthwalo wobufakazi maqondana nalokhu kugcwaliseka okungafanele kwemisebenzi ukulele umphathi; kumele enze okusobala ukuthi umqondisi ocabanga kahle, ngaphansi kwezimo ezifanayo, ubengeke enze ngale ndlela. [4] Izenzo eziphazamisa ababolekisi empeleni zikhiqiza ukuphathwa okungafanele. Ukuhlukunyezwa ngabaqondisi kumele kuvinjelwe.

Isishayamthetho sifake ukucabanga okuthile kobufakazi ku-athikili 2: 138 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code naku-2: 248 sub 2 Dutch Civil Code. Lapho ibhodi labaqondisi lingahambisani nendatshana 2:10 yeDutch Civil Code noma i-athikili 2: 394 Dutch Civil Code, kucatshangelwa ubufakazi. Kulokhu, kucatshangwa ukuthi ukuphathwa ngokungafanele bekuyimbangela ebalulekile yokuqothuka. Lokhu kudlulisela umthwalo wobufakazi kumqondisi. Kodwa-ke, abaqondisi bangakuphika ukucabanga kobufakazi. Ukuze enze lokho, umqondisi kufanele enze okusobala ukuthi ukuqothuka akubanga ukuphathwa okungafanele, kodwa ngamanye amaphuzu nezimo. Umqondisi kufanele futhi akhombise ukuthi akazange abe budedengu ekuthatheni izinyathelo ukuvimbela ukuphathwa okungafanele. [5] Ngaphezu kwalokho, i-curator ingafaka kuphela isimangalo isikhathi seminyaka emithathu ngaphambi kokuqothuka. Lokhu kuvela endatshaneni 2: 138 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code naku-athikili 2: 248 sub 6 Dutch Civil Code.

Izikweletu eziningana zangaphandle kanye nokudlanga

Wonke umqondisi unesibopho ngokweqile ekuphathweni okubonakala kungafanelekile phakathi kokuqothuka. Kodwa-ke, abaqondisi bangaphunyuka kulesi sikweletu ngokuziqhenya. Lokhu kuvela endatshaneni 2: 138 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code naku-athikili 2: 248 sub 3 Dutch Civil Code. Umqondisi kufanele afakazele ukuthi ukufeza okungafanele kwemisebenzi akunakubanjwa kuye. Kungenzeka futhi ukuthi akazange abe budedengu ekuthatheni izinyathelo ukuze agweme imiphumela yokufezeka okungafanele kwemisebenzi. Umthwalo wobufakazi ngokuzijabulisa ulele kumqondisi. Lokhu kuvela ezihlokweni ezibalulwe ngenhla futhi kusungulwa emthethweni wamacala wakamuva weNkantolo Ephakeme YaseDashi.

Isikweletu sangaphandle ngokusekelwe esenzweni sokuhlushwa

Abaqondisi nabo bangabekwa icala ngokusekelwe esenzweni sokuhlukunyezwa, esivela kumbhalo we-6: 162 waseDutch Civil Code. Le ndatshana inikezela ngesisekelo esivamile sesikweletu. Izikweletu zabaqondisi ngokusekelwe esenzweni sokuhlushwa nazo zingadonswa ngumuntu okweletwayo ngamunye.

Inkantolo Ephakeme YaseDashi ihlukanisa izinhlobo ezimbili zezikweletu zabaqondisi ngokuya ngesenzo sokuhlukumeza. Okokuqala, isikweletu singamukelwa ngesisekelo sezinga leBeklamel. Kulokhu, umqondisi ungene esivumelwaneni neqembu lesithathu egameni lenkampani, ngenkathi azi noma kufanele ukuthi aqonde ukuthi inkampani ngeke ikwazi ukuhambisana nezibopho ezitholakala kulesi sivumelwano. [7] Uhlobo lwesibili lwesikweletu ukukhungatheka kwemithombo. Kulokhu, umqondisi ubangele iqiniso lokuthi inkampani ayikhokhi ababolekisi bayo futhi ayikwazi ukufeza izibopho zayo zokukhokha. Izenzo zomqondisi azinakile kangangoba angabekwa icala elinzima. [8] Umthwalo wobufakazi kulokhu ukulele umbolekisi.

Isikweletu somqondisi webhizinisi elisemthethweni

ENetherlands, umuntu wemvelo kanye nenhlangano esemthethweni angaba ngumqondisi wenhlangano esemthethweni. Ukwenza izinto zibe lula, umuntu wemvelo ongumqondisi uzobizwa ngokuthi umqondisi wemvelo bese kuthi inhlangano yezomthetho engumqondisi ibizwe ngokuthi ngumqondisi wenhlangano kule ndima. Ukuthi ibhizinisi elisemthethweni lingaba ngumqondisi, akusho ukuthi isikweletu sabaqondisi singagwenywa nje ngokuqokwa kwebhizinisi elisemthethweni njengomqondisi. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2:11 Ikhodi Yombuso WaseDashi. Lapho umqondisi webhizinisi ephethwe enecala, lesi sikweletu sikhona nabaqondisi bemvelo balo mqondisi webhizinisi.

I-Athikili 2:11 I-Dutch Civil Code isebenza ezimeni lapho kucatshangwa khona isikweletu sabaqondisi ngokususelwa ku-athikili 2: 9 i-Dutch Civil Code, i-athikili 2: 138 i-Dutch Civil Code kanye ne-athikili 2: 248 Dutch Civil Code. Kodwa-ke, kuphakame imibuzo yokuthi ngabe i-athikili 2:11 ye-Dutch Civil Code iyasebenza yini nasecaleni labaqondisi ngokuya ngesenzo se-tort. Inkantolo Ephakeme YaseDashi inqume ukuthi kunjalo ngempela. Kulesi sinqumo, iNkantolo Ephakeme YaseDashi ikhomba umlando wezomthetho. I-Athikili 2:11 I-Dutch Civil Code ihlose ukuvimbela abantu bemvelo ukuthi bacashe ngabaqondisi bezinhlangano ukuze bagweme isikweletu. Lokhu kufaka ukuthi i-athikili 2:11 ye-Dutch Civil Code isebenza kuwo wonke amacala lapho umqondisi webhizinisi angabekwa khona icala ngokuya ngomthetho. [9]

Ukulahlwa kwebhodi yabaqondisi

Isikweletu sabaqondisi singaphazanyiswa ngokunikeza ukukhululwa ebhodini labaqondisi. Ukulahlwa kusho ukuthi inqubomgomo yebhodi yabaqondisi, njengoba yenziwe kuze kube isikhathi sokukhululwa, ivunyelwe yinhlangano esemthethweni. Ukukhishwa ngakho-ke kususa isikweletu kubaqondisi. Ukulahla akuyona igama elingatholakala emthethweni, kepha kuvame ukufakwa ezincwadini zokufakwa kwebhizinisi elisemthethweni. Ukulahla kungukuwa kwesibopho kwangaphakathi kwesikweletu. Ngakho-ke, ukukhipha kusebenza kuphela kwisikweletu sangaphakathi. Amaqembu esithathu asakwazi ukudonsa umthwalo wabaqondisi.

Ukukhishwa kusebenza kuphela kumaqiniso nezimo ezazaziwa kubaninimasheya ngenkathi kukhishwa imvume. [10] Isibopho samaqiniso angaziwa sisazoba khona. Ngakho-ke, ukukhishwa akuphephile ngamaphesenti ayikhulu futhi akunikeli iziqinisekiso zabaqondisi.

Isiphetho

Ubusomabhizinisi bungaba umsebenzi oyinselele futhi ojabulisayo, kodwa ngeshwa uza nezingozi. Osomabhizinisi abaningi bakholelwa ukuthi bangasusa isikweletu ngokuqala ibhizinisi elisemthethweni. Labo somabhizinisi bazobe bedumele; ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile, isikweletu sabaqondisi singasebenza. Lokhu kungaba nemiphumela ebanzi; umqondisi uzokhokha izikweletu zenkampani ngempahla yakhe yangasese. Ngakho-ke, izingozi ezitholakala kwisikweletu sabaqondisi akufanele ziyaneliswa. Kungaba ukuhlakanipha kwabaqondisi bezinhlangano zezomthetho ukuthi bathobele yonke imigomo engokomthetho futhi baphathe ibhizinisi elisemthethweni ngendlela evulekile nangamabomu.

Uhlobo oluphelele lwalesi sihloko luyatholakala ngalesi sixhumanisi

Contact

Uma unemibuzo noma ukuphawula ngemuva kokufunda le ndatshana, sicela ukhululeke ukuxhumana noMaxim Hodak, ummeli lapho Law & More nge-maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, noma uTom Meevis, ummeli ku Law & More ngetom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, noma ushayele +31 (0) 40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2002: AE7011 (Berghuizer Papierfabriek).

[3] ECLI: NL: GHAMS: 2010: BN6929.

[4] ECLI: NL: HR: 2001: AB2053 (Panmo).

[5] ECLI: NL: HR: 2007: BA6773 (Blue Utamatisi).

[6] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (IGlascentrale Beheer BV).

[7] ECLI: NL: HR: 1989: AB9521 (Beklamel).

[8] ECLI: NL: HR: 2006: AZ0758 (Ontvanger / Roelofsen).

[9] ECLI: NL: HR: 2017: 275.

[10] ECLI: NL: HR: 1997: ZC2243 (Staleman / Van de Ven); ECLI: NL: HR: 2010: BM2332.

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