Isikweletu sabaninimasheya eThe Netherlands

Izikweletu zabaqondisi benkampani e-The Netherlands zihlala zixoxwa ngendaba. Kuningi okushiwo ngesikweletu sabaninimasheya. Noma kunjalo, kwenzeka ukuthi abaninimasheya bangakhokhelwa ngezenzo zabo enkampanini ngokomthetho waseDashi. Lapho umhlanganyeli angaboshwa ngesenzo sakhe, lokhu kuphathelene nesikweletu somuntu siqu, esingaba nemiphumela emqoka empilweni yomuntu siqu. Ngakho-ke, kubalulekile ukuqaphela ubungozi maqondana nesikweletu sabaninimasheya. Izimo ezahlukahlukene lapho kungabonakala khona isikweletu sabaninimasheya eNetherlands kuzoxoxwa ngalo kule ndaba.

1. Izibopho zabaninimasheya

Isabelo samasheya siphethe amasheya enhlangano esemthethweni. Ngokwe-Dutch Civil Code, inhlangano esemthethweni ilingana nomuntu wemvelo uma kukhulunywa ngamalungelo empahla. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ibhizinisi elisemthethweni lingaba namalungelo nezibopho ezifanayo njengomuntu wemvelo futhi lingakwazi ukwenza izinto zomthetho, njengokuthola impahla, ukungena esivumelwaneni noma ukufayila enkantolo icala. Njengoba ibhizinisi elisemthethweni likhona ephepheni kuphela, inhlangano esemthethweni kufanele ivezwe ngumuntu wemvelo, umphathi (abaqondisi). Ngenkathi ibhizinisi elisemthethweni likwesibopho sokukhokhela noma imuphi umonakalo odalwe ezenzweni zalo, abaqondisi kwezinye izimo nabo bangabekwa icala ngokuseyisibopho sabaqondisi. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kuphakamisa umbuzo wokuthi ngabe umuntu ongabelana naye angaboshwa yini ngezenzo zakhe maqondana nebhizinisi elisemthethweni. Ukuze unqume isikweletu sabaninimasheya, izibopho zabaninimasheya kumele zisungulwe. Singahlukanisa izinhlobo ezintathu zezibopho ezithile zabaninimasheya: izibopho zomthetho, izibopho ezitholakala ezincwadini zokufakwa kanye nezibopho ezitholakala esivumelwaneni sabaninimasheya.

Isibopho sabaninimasheya

1.1 Izibopho zabaninimasheya ezithathwe emthethweni

Ngokwe-Dutch Civil Code, abanikazi bamasheya banesibopho esisodwa esibalulekile: isibopho sokukhokha inkampani ngamasheya abawatholayo. Lesi sibopho sitholakala embhalweni 2: 191 we-Dutch Civil Code futhi ukuphela kwesibopho esicacile sabaninimasheya esitholakala emthethweni. Kodwa-ke, ngokwe-athikili 2: 191 i-Dutch Civil Code kungenzeka ukusho ezihlokweni zokufakwa ukuthi amasheya akudingeki akhokhwe ngokugcwele:

Ekubhaliseleni isabelo, inani langempela laso kufanele likhokhwe kwinkampani. Kungenzeka ukusho ukuthi inani eliqokiwe, noma ingxenye yenani lokuqokwa, kufanele likhokhwe kuphela ngemuva kwesilinganiso esithile sesikhathi noma ngemuva kokuthi inkampani icele ukuthi ikhokhelwe.

Kodwa-ke, uma lokho kufakwa kufakwa emibhalweni yokufakelwa, kukhona ukuhlinzekwa okuvikela abantu besithathu uma kwenzeka kuqothuka. Uma inkampani ihamba ibanga futhi amasheya engakhokhelwa ngokugcwele ngabaninimasheya, kungaba ngenxa yesimo emibhalweni yokufakelwa kokuzenzakalelayo, umgadli oqokiwe unesibopho sokufuna ukukhokhwa okuphelele kwako konke ukuwabelana kumasheya. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2: 193 Code Code Dutch:

I-curator yenkampani inikwe amandla okubiza futhi iqoqe konke ukukhokha okuphoqelekile okungakenziwa maqondana nokwabelana. Lawa mandla akhona ngaphandle kokucacisiwe ukuthi yikuphi okuchaziwe kulokhu maqondana nasezihlokweni zokufakwa noma okubalulwe ngokusho kwendatshana 2: 191 Dutch Code Code.

Isibopho esingokomthetho sabaninimasheya ukukhokha ngokugcwele amasheya abakudinga ukuthi kube khona ukuthi abaninimasheya ngokomthetho banesibopho kuphela senani lamasheya abalithathile. Ngeke zibekwe icala ngezenzo zenkampani. Lokhu kutholakala futhi kusukela esihlokweni 2:64 Dutch Civil Code kanye nesihloko 2: 175 Dutch Civil Code:

Umnikazi wamasheya akabi nesibopho yena ngokwalokho okwenziwe egameni lenkampani futhi akabophekile ukuthi abambe iqhaza ekulahlekelweni kwenkampani ngemali engaphezu kwaleyo ayikhokhile noma kusafanele akhokhe ngamasheya akhe.

1.2 Izibopho zamasheya ezithathwe ezincwadini zokufakwa

Njengoba kuchaziwe ngenhla, abanikazi bamasheya banesibopho esisodwa somthetho esicacile: ukukhokhela amasheya abo. Kodwa-ke, ngaphezu kwalesi sibopho esingokomthetho, izibopho zabaninimasheya nazo zingacaciswa emibhalweni yokufakwa. Lokhu ngokusho kwendatshana 2: 192, isigaba 1 Ikhodi Yombuso WaseDashi:

Izindatshana zokufakwa zingangena, mayelana nawo wonke amasheya noma amasheya wohlobo oluthile:

  1. chaza ukuthi izibopho ezithile, okufanele zenziwe zenzelwa inkampani, maqondana nezingxenye noma phakathi kwabaninimasheya ngokulandelana, zinamathiselwe kubanikazi bezabelo
  2. namathisela izidingo kubaninimasheya;
  3. anqume ukuthi lowo onamasheya, ezimweni ezichazwe embhalweni wokufakwa, unesibopho sokudlulisela amasheya akhe noma ingxenye yawo noma enze umnikelo wokudlulisela amasheya okunjalo.

Ngokusho kwalesi sihloko, izindatshana zokufakwa zingasho ukuthi umnikazi wamasheya angaboshwa uqobo izikweletu zenkampani. Futhi, imibandela yokuxhaswa kwemali kwenkampani ingabekwa. Izinhlinzeko ezinjalo zandisa isikweletu sabaninimasheya. Kodwa-ke, okuhlinzekwayo okufana nalokhu ngeke kuchazwe ngokuchasene nentando yabaninimasheya. Zingabekwa kuphela lapho abaninimasheya bevumelana nezinhlinzeko. Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2: 192, isigaba 1 Ikhodi Yombuso WaseDashi:

Isibopho noma imfuneko njengoba kushiwo kumusho owedlule ngaphansi (a), (b) noma (c) angeke kubekwe kumasheya maqondana nentando yakhe, kungakhathalekile ngaphansi kwesimo noma isikhathi esibekiwe.

Ukuze kucace izibopho ezengeziwe zabaninimasheya emibhalweni yokufakwa, isinqumo somnikazi wamasheya kufanele sithathwe nguMhlangano Jikelele Wabahlanganyeli. Uma umnikazi wamasheya evotela ukubeka izibopho ezingezekile noma izidingo zabaninimasheya kuzindatshana zokufakwa, angeke abekwe icala maqondana nalezi zibopho noma izidingo.

1.3 Izibopho Zabaninimasheya ezitholakala esivumelwaneni sabaninimasheya

Abanini bamasheya banethuba lokudala isivumelwano sabaninimasheya Isivumelwano sabaninimasheya sigcwaliswa phakathi kwabaninimasheya futhi siqukethe amalungelo ongeziwe nezibopho zabaninizabelo. Isivumelwano sabaninimasheya sisebenza kuphela kwabaninimasheya, asithinti abantu besithathu. Uma obamba iqhaza engahambisani nesivumelwano sabaninimasheya, angabekwa icala lokulimaza okutholakala kulokhu kwehluleka ukuthobela. Lesi sikweletu sizosuselwa ekwehlulekeni ukuhambisana nesivumelwano, esisuselwa kundatshana 6:74 Dutch Civil Code. Kodwa-ke, uma kukhona owabelana yedwa ophethe onke amasheya enkampani, akunasidingo sokwenza isivumelwano sabaninimasheya.

2. Isibopho sezenzo ezingekho emthethweni

Eduze kwalezi zibopho ezithile zabaninimasheya, isikweletu maqondana nezenzo ezingekho emthethweni futhi kufanele sibhekwe lapho kunqunywa isikweletu sabaninizabelo. Wonke umuntu unesibopho sokwenza ngokomthetho. Lapho umuntu enza ngokungemthetho, angabekwa icala ngokusekelwe kumbhalo we-6: 162 waseDutch Civil Code. Isabelo sinesibopho sokwenza ngokusemthethweni kubabolekisi, kubatshalizimali, kubahlinzeki nakwabanye abantu besithathu. Uma umhlanganyeli enza okungekho emthethweni, angabekwa icala ngalesi senzo. Lapho umhlanganyeli enza ngendlela yokuthi kungenziwa icala elingamanga kuye, isenzo esingemthetho singavunywa. Isibonelo sesenzo esingemthetho esenziwa ngumninimasheya kungaba ukusatshalaliswa kwenzuzo ngenkathi kuvela ukuthi inkampani ngeke isakwazi ukukhokhela abakweletwayo ngemuva kwale nkokhelo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusebenza okungekho emthethweni ngabaninizabelo ngesinye isikhathi kungavela ngokuthengisa amasheya kubantu besithathu. Kulindelwe ukuthi umnini-masheya, ngokwezinga elithile, aqale uphenyo kumuntu noma enkampani afuna ukuyithengisela amasheya akhe. Uma uphenyo olunjalo luveza ukuthi inkampani umnikazi wamasheya abamba ngayo amasheya cishe ngeke ikwazi ukufeza izibopho zayo ngemuva kokudluliswa kwamasheya, lowo onamasheya kulindeleke ukuthi abhekele izintshisekelo zababolekisi. Lokhu kufaka ukuthi umuntu ongabamba amasheya ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile angaboshwa uqobo uma edlulisela amasheya akhe kunxenye yesithathu futhi lokhu kudlulisa kuholele enkampanini ingakwazi ukukhokha abakweletayo.

3. Izikweletu zabenzi bezinqubomgomo

Okokugcina, izikweletu zabaninimasheya zingavela lapho umhlanganyeli esebenza njengomenzi wenqubomgomo. Ngokuyinhloko, abaqondisi banomsebenzi wokuqhuba inkambo ejwayelekile yemicimbi ngaphakathi kwenkampani. Lokhu akuwona umsebenzi wabaninimasheya. Kodwa-ke, abanikazi bamasheya banethuba lokunikeza abaqondisi imiyalo. Lokhu kungenzeka kufakwe ezindabeni zokufakwa. Ngokusho kwendatshana 2: 239, isigaba 4 i-Dutch Civil Code, abaqondisi kufanele balandele imiyalo yabaninimasheya, ngaphandle kokuthi le miyalo iphikisana nezinhloso zenkampani:

Izindatshana zokufakwa zinganikeza ukuthi ibhodi yabaqondisi kumele lisebenze ngokwemiyalo yelinye iqembu lehlangano. Ibhodi yabaqondisi liphoqeleka ukuthi lilandele imiyalo ngaphandle kokuthi lokhu kungqubuzana nezinhloso zenhlangano noma yebhizinisi elixhumene nakho.

Kodwa-ke, kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi abanikazi bamasheya banikeze imiyalo ejwayelekile.[1] Amasheya awakwazi ukunikeza imiyalo mayelana nezihloko ezithile noma izenzo. Isibonelo, umnikazi wamasheya ngeke anikeze umqondisi umyalo wokuqothula umsebenzi. Abanini bamasheya angeke bathathe iqhaza lomqondisi. Uma abaninimasheya besebenza njengabaqondisi, futhi benza inkambiso ejwayelekile yemicimbi yenkampani, babalwa njengabenza inqubomgomo futhi bazophathwa njengabaqondisi. Lokhu kusho ukuthi bangabekwa icala lokulimaza okuvela kunqubomgomo eyenziwe. Ngakho-ke, bangabekwa icala ngokuhambisana nesikweletu sabaqondisi uma inkampani idilizwa.[2] Lokhu kutholakala esihlokweni 2: 138, isigaba 7 Ikhodi Yombuso WaseDashi nesihloko 2: 248, isigaba 7 Ikhodi Yombuso WaseDashi:

Ngenhloso yendatshana esetshenziswayo, umuntu oye wanquma noma wamisa inqubomgomo yenhlangano njengokungathi ungumqondisi, ilingana nomqondisi.

Isigaba 2: 216, isigaba 4 I-Dutch Civil Code nayo ithi umuntu onqume noma obenquma inqubomgomo yenkampani ilingana nomqondisi, futhi ngenxa yalokho angabekwa icala ngokusezingeni lesikweletu sabaqondisi.

4. Isiphetho

Ngokuyinhloko, inkampani inesibopho sokulimala okutholakala ezenzweni zayo. Ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile, abaqondisi nabo bangaboshwa. Kodwa-ke, kubalulekile ukukhumbula ukuthi abahlanganyeli benkampani nabo bangabekwa icala lokulimala ezimweni ezithile. Isabelo mashe ngeke sifeze zonke izinhlobo zezenzo ngaphandle kokuzibamba. Ngenkathi lokhu kungazwakala kunengqondo, ekusebenzeni ukunakwa okuncane kunikezwa kwisikweletu sabaninimasheya. Abamasheya banezibopho ezitholakala emthethweni, izindatshana zokufakwa kanye nesivumelwano sabaninimasheya. Lapho abaninimasheya behluleka ukulandela lezi zibopho, bangahlawuliswa ngomonakalo odalekile.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, abaninimasheya, njengawo wonke omunye umuntu, kufanele benze ngokomthetho. Ukwenza okungekho emthethweni kungahle kubangele isikweletu somninimasheya. Okokugcina, umnikazi wamasheya kufanele asebenze njengomhlanganyeli hhayi umqondisi. Lapho obamba amasheya eqala ukwenza inkambiso yemicimbi ejwayelekile enkampanini, uzofaniswa nomqondisi. Kulokhu, isibopho sabaqondisi singasebenza nakubaninimasheya. Kungaba ukuhlakanipha ngabaninimasheya ukuthi bagcine ubungozi lobu engqondweni, ukugwema isikweletu sabaninimasheya.

Contact

Uma unemibuzo noma imibono ngemuva kokufunda le ndatshana, sicela ukhululeke ukuxhumana nomnumzane. Maxim Hodak, ummeli ku- Law & More via maxim.hodak@lawandmore.nl, or mr. Tom Meevis, lawyer at Law & More via tom.meevis@lawandmore.nl, or call +31 (0)40-3690680.

[1] ECLI: NL: HR: 1955: AG2033 (Forumbank).

[2] ECLI: NL: HR: 2015: 522 (Hollandse Glascentrale Beheer BV).

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