Ukuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa kwesinqumo saseRussia sokubhujiswa

Kuzinkontileka eziningi zokuhweba zikazwelonke nezamazwe omhlaba, bavame ukuhlela i-arbitrage ukuxazulula izingxabano zebhizinisi. Lokhu kusho ukuthi leli cala lizonikezwa umlamuli esikhundleni sejaji lenkantolo kazwelonke. Ukuze kuqedwe ukwamukelwa komklomelo wokulamula, kuyadingeka ukuthi ijaji lezwe lokuqalisa linikeze isazi. I-exequatur isho ukwamukelwa komklomelo wokulamula futhi ilingana nesinqumo somthetho esingaphoqelelwa noma esenziwe. Imithetho yokwamukelwa nokuphoqelelwa kwesinqumo sangaphandle ilawulwa eSivumelwaneni saseNew York. Lo mhlangano wamukelwa yingqungquthela yamanxusa eZizwe Ezihlangene ngomhlaka 10 Juni 1958 eNew York. Lo mhlangano waphethelwa ngokuyinhloko ukulawula kanye nokwenza lula inqubo yokwamukelwa nokuphoqelelwa kwesinqumo sezomthetho sangaphandle phakathi kwamazwe anenkontileka.

Njengamanje, umhlangano waseNew York unamaqembu ombuso ayi-159

Uma kukhulunywa ngokwamukelwa nokuphoqelelwa okususelwa ku-athikili V (1) weSivumelwano saseNew York, ijaji livunyelwe ukuba namandla okuqonda ezimweni ezihlukile. Ngokomthetho, ijaji alivunyelwe ukuthi lihlole noma linciphise okuqukethwe yisinqumo somthetho emacaleni aphathelene nokwamukelwa nokuphoqelelwa. Kodwa-ke, kukhona okuhlukile maqondana nezinkomba ezibucayi zokukhubazeka okubalulekile esahlulelweni sezomthetho, ukuze kungabhekwa njengesivivinyo esifanele. Okunye okuhlukile kulo mthetho kuyasebenza uma kunengqondo ngokwanele ukuthi uma kwenzeka kuqulwa icala elifanele, bekuzoholela nasekucekelweni phansi kwesahlulelo sezomthetho. Icala elibalulekile elilandelayo loMkhandlu Ophakeme likhombisa ukuthi okuhlukile kungasetshenziswa ezingeni elingakanani ekusebenzeni kwansuku zonke. Umbuzo omkhulu ngothi noma ngabe umklomelo wokulamula owonakaliswe yinkantolo yezomthetho yaseRussia, usengaphasisa inqubo yokuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa eNetherlands.

Ukuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa kwesinqumo saseRussia sokubhujiswa

Leli cala limayelana nenhlangano esemthethweni yaseRussia engumkhiqizi wensimbi osebenza emhlabeni wonke ogama lakhe lingu-OJSC Novolipetsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat (NLMK). Umkhiqizi wensimbi ungumqashi omkhulu kunabo bonke esifundeni saseRussia iLipetsk. Amasheya amaningi enkampani aphethwe ngusomabhizinisi waseRussia uVS Lisin. ILisin futhi ingumnikazi wamachweba okushintshela eSt. Petersburg naseTuapse. ULisin unesikhundla esiphakeme enkampanini kahulumeni waseRussia i-United Shipbuilding Corporation futhi unezintshisekelo enkampanini yaseRussia iFreight One, okuyinkampani yezitimela. Ngokuya ngeSivumelwano Sokuthenga, esifaka phakathi inqubo yokulamula, zombili izinhlangothi zivumelene ngokuthengwa nokuthengiswa kwamasheya e-Lislin kwa-Lisin kwa-NLMK. Ngemuva kwempikiswano nokukhokha sekwedlule isikhathi kwentengo yokuthenga egameni le-NLKM, uLisis unquma ukuletha lolu daba eNkantolo Yezokuhwebelana Yomhlaba Wonke eChamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation futhi afune ukukhokhwa kwentengo yokuthenga amasheya, okungukuthi kuye, ama-ruble ayi-14,7 billion. U-NLMK uzivikela ngokuthi uLisin usethole inkokhelo kusengaphambili okusho ukuthi inani lentengo yokuthenga selishintshile laba ama-ruble ayi-5,9 billion.

NgoMashi 2011 kwaqalwa inqubo yobugebengu ebhekene neLisin ngezinsolo zenkohliso njengengxenye yokuthengiselana ngezabelo ne-NLMK kanye nokusolwa kokwenza kabi inkantolo ye-Arbitration kuleli cala elibhekene ne-NLMK. Kodwa-ke, izikhalazo aziholelanga ekushushisweni kobugebengu.

Inkantolo ye-Arbitration, lapho icala phakathi kweLisin ne-NLMK lidingidwe khona, igwebe i-NLMK ukuthi ikhokhe inani elisele lokuthengwa kwama-ruble ayi-8,9 futhi yenqabe zombili lezi zimangalo zangempela. Intengo yokuthenga ibalwa ngokulandelayo ngokususelwa engxenyeni yentengo ethengiwe yiLisin (ama-ruble ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-22,1) kanye nenani elibaliwe yi-NLMK (ruble le-1,4 billion). Mayelana nenkokhelo esezingeni eliphakeme inkantolo igwebe i-NLMK ukuthi ikhokhe ama-ruble ayi-8,9 billion. Isicelo sokuphikisana nesinqumo senkantolo ye-Arbitration asikwazi futhi i-NLMK isimanga, ngokususelwa ezinsolweni zangaphambilini zokukhwabanisa okwenziwe uLisin, ekubhujisweni komklomelo wokuphikisana okwenziwe yiNkantolo yase-Arbitrazh yedolobha laseMoscow. Lowo mbango unikezwe kanti umklomelo wokulamula uzobhujiswa.

ILisin ngeke iyimele futhi ifuna ukulandela umyalo wokugcina kumasheya aphethwe yi-NLMK enhlokodolobha yayo yeNLMK International BV e-Amsterdam. Ukubhujiswa kwalesi sinqumo sekwenze ukuthi kube nzima ukulandela i-oda yokulondolozwa eRussia. Ngakho-ke, isicelo seLisin sokuqashelwa nokuqinisekiswa komklomelo wokulamula. Isicelo sakhe senqatshiwe. Ngokuya ngomhlangano waseNew York kujwayelekile ukuthi kubaphathi abanezikhundla ezweni labo inqubo yokwahlulela isuselwe (kule nkantolo izinkantolo ezijwayelekile zaseRussia) ukunquma ngaphakathi komthetho kazwelonke, mayelana nokuchithwa kwemiklomelo ye-Arbitration. Empeleni, inkantolo yokuphoqelelwa ayivunyelwe ukuhlola le miklomelo ye-Arbitration. INkantolo ku-Interlocutory Proceedings ibheka ukuthi umklomelo wokulamula awukwazi ukwenziwa, ngoba awusekho.

ILisin yafaka isikhalo esiphikisana nalesi sinqumo eNkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala e-Amsterdam. Inkantolo ibheka ukuthi ngokomthetho umklomelo wokulamula obekelwe ukubekelwa imvamisa ngeke ungacabangi nganoma yikuphi ukuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa ngaphandle kokuthi kuyicala elikhethekile. Kunecala elihlukile uma kunezinkomba eziqinile zokuthi isahlulelo sezinkantolo zaseRussia sineziphene ezibalulekile, ukuze lokhu kungathathwa njengecala elifanele. Inkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala i-Amsterdam ayibheki leli cala elithile njengehlukile.

ILisin yafaka isikhalazo ngokuxwaya lesi sinqumo. Ngokuya kweLisin inkantolo ibuye yehluleka wukubonga amandla aqukethe izinkantolo anikezwe inkantolo ngokususelwa kunqaku V (1) (e) obheka ukuthi uma isinqumo sokonakala kwangaphandle singayekelela inqubo yokuphoqelelwa komklomelo wokulamula eNetherlands. UMkhandlu oPhezulu uqhathanise inguqulo yangempela yesiNgisi neFrance yombhalo weSivumelwano. Zombili lezi zinguqulo zibonakala zinencazelo ehlukile maqondana namandla wokuzikhethela anikezwe inkantolo. Uhlobo lwesiNgisi lwenqaku V (1) (e) lisho okulandelayo:

  1. Ukuqashelwa nokuqashwa komklomelo kungenqatshwa, ngesicelo seqembu elicelwe kuye, kuphela uma lelo qembu linikezela kwigunya elinolwazi lapho kufuna ukuqashelwa kanye nokuphoqelelwa, ubufakazi bokuthi:

(...)

  1. e) Umklomelo awukabi ngesibopho emaqenjini, noma ubekelwe eceleni noma kumiswe yisiphathimandla sezwe lelo, noma ngaphansi komthetho, lapho lowo mklomelo wenziwa khona. ”

Uhlobo lwaseFrance lwendatshana V (1) (e) lubeka okulandelayo:

"1. La reconnaissance et l'exécution de la isigwebo ne-seront Refusées, lapho kudingekile ukuba kudliwe, ngoba le mali ifanelekile, iyisidingo sokukhokhelwa kokukhokhelwa kanye nokukhokhelwa okungafuneki kuqala:

(...)

  1. e) Isigwebo asikaze sidlulise isibophezelo semali esizothunyelwa emaqenjini noma ekwenziweni kokumiswa emsebenzini noma kokumiswa okwesikhashana kokukhokhelwa kokukhokha imali ekhokhelwe, noma ukukhishwa kwesigwebo, isigwebo kufanele sikhishwe. ”

Amandla wokuzikhethela wenguqulo yesiNgisi ('angawenqatshwa') abonakala ebanzi kunenguqulo yesiFulentshi ('ne seront refusées que si'). UMkhandlu Ophakeme uthole ukuhumusha okuningi okwehlukile kweminye imithombo ngokusetshenziswa okuyikho kwengqungquthela.

UMkhandlu oPhezulu uzama ukucacisa izincazelo ezihlukile ngokungeza ukutolika kwazo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi amandla okubusa angasebenza kuphela uma kunesizathu sokwenqatshwa ngokuya ngeSivumelwano. Kulesi simo bekucishe kube yisizathu sokwenqaba okubhekisele 'ekubhujisweni komklomelo we-Arbitration'. KuseLisin ukufakazela ngokusekelwe emaqinisweni nasezimweni lapho umhlabathi wokwenqaba awunasisekelo.

UMkhandlu Ophakeme wabelana ngokugcwele ngombono weNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala. Kungaba necala elikhethekile ngokusho kweNkantolo eNkulu lapho ukuchithwa komklomelo wokulamula kusekelwe kwizizathu ezingahambelani nezizathu zokwenqaba kwendatshana V (1). Yize inkantolo yaseDashi inikezwe amandla okuzikhethela uma kuqashelwa futhi kuphoqelelwa, ayisebenzi isicelo sesahlulelo sokubhujiswa kuleli cala elithile. Ukuphikisana okwenziwe nguLisin akunathuba lokuphumelela.

Lesi sinqumo soMkhandlu Ophakeme sinikeza ukucaciswa okusobala ukuthi yiphi indlela i-V (1) yomhlangano waseNew York okufanele ihunyushwe ngayo uma kwenzeka amandla okubandlulula anikezwe inkantolo ngesikhathi sokwamukelwa nokuqinisekiswa kwesinqumo sokubhujiswa. Lokhu kusho, ngamafuphi, ukuthi ezimeni ezithile kuphela ukubhujiswa kwesahlulelo kungabhalwa ngaphezulu.

Ungahlukıselana
Law & More B.V.