Ukuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa kwesinqumo saseRussia sokubhujiswa

Ezinkontilekeni eziningi zokuhweba zikazwelonke nezamazwe omhlaba, zivame ukuhlela ukulamula ukuze kuxazululwe izingxabano zebhizinisi. Lokhu kusho ukuthi leli cala lizonikezwa umlamuli esikhundleni sejaji lenkantolo kazwelonke. Ukuze kusetshenziswe umklomelo wokulamula ukuze uphothulwe, kuyadingeka ukuthi umahluleli wezwe wokuqalisa anikeze i-exequatur. I-exequatur isho ukuqashelwa komklomelo wokulamula futhi ilingana nesahlulelo esingokomthetho esingasebenza noma senziwe. Imithetho yokwamukelwa kanye nokusetshenziswa kwesinqumo sangaphandle iyalawulwa kwi-New York Convention. Lo mhlangano wamukelwa yingqungquthela yeZizwe Ezihlangene ngomhlaka 10 Juni 1958 eNew York. Lo mhlangano waphethwa ngokuyinhloko ukulawula nokulungiselela inqubo yokwamukelwa kanye nokuqiniswa kwesinqumo sasemthethweni sangaphandle phakathi kwezinkontileka.

Njengamanje, umhlangano waseNew York unamaqembu wombuso ayi-159.

Uma kukhulunywa ngokuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa okusekelwe endabeni V (1) yeSivumelwano saseNew York, ijaji livunyelwe ukuba namandla okubusa ezimeni ezihlukile. Ngokuyinhloko, umahluleli akavunyelwe ukuthi ahlole noma aphathe okuqukethwe yisinqumo esingokomthetho kumacala maqondana nokuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa. Kodwa-ke, kukhona okuhlukile maqondana nezinkomba ezibucayi zamaphutha abalulekile ekwahlulelweni okusemthethweni, ukuze kungathathwa njengecala elifanele. Okunye okuhlukile kulo mthetho kuyasebenza uma kungenzeka ngokwanele ukuthi uma kunecala elifanelekile, kungahle futhi kuholele ekubhujisweni kwesahlulelo esingokomthetho. Icala elilandelayo elibalulekile loMkhandlu oPhakamileyo libonisa ukuthi lokho okuhlukile kungasetshenziswa kangakanani emikhubeni yansuku zonke. Umbuzo omkhulu uthi noma umklomelo wokulamula oye wachithwa yinkantolo yezomthetho yaseRussia noma, usengayidlulisa inqubo yokuqashelwa kanye nokuphoqelelwa eNetherlands.

Ukuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa kwesinqumo saseRussia sokubhujiswa

Leli cala limayelana nenhlangano yezomthetho yaseRussia engumkhiqizi wensimbi osebenza emhlabeni wonke ogama lakhe lingu-OJSC Novolipetsky Metallurgichesky Kombinat (NLMK). Umkhiqizi wezinsimbi ngumqashi omkhulu kunabo bonke esifundeni saseRussia iLetstsk. Iningi lamasheya ale nkampani lingelasebhizinisini laseRussia i-VS Lisin. ILisin futhi ingumnikazi wamachweba we-transshipment eSt. Petersburg naseTufall. ILisin inesikhundla esiphakeme enkampanini yezwe yaseRussia i-United Shipbuild Corporation futhi inezinhloso zayo enkampanini yezwe yaseRussia iFreight One, okuyinkampani kaloliwe. Ngokusekelwe Esivumelwaneni Sokuthenga, okubandakanya inqubo yokuBuyisa, bobabili amaqembu avumile ukuthengwa nokuthengiswa kwamasheya we-NLMK eLisin ku-NLMK. Ngemuva kwengxabano nokukhokha sekwephuzile kwentengo yokuthenga egameni le-NLKM, uLisin unquma ukuluyisa lolu daba ngaphambi kweNkantolo Yezokuhweba Yezokuhwebelana Yezwe Lonke eChamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation futhi ufuna ukukhokhwa kwentengo yokuthenga amasheya, okungukuthi kuye, ama-ruble ayi-14,7 billion. I-NLMK ithi ekuzivikeleni kwayo ukuthi iLisin isivele yathola ukukhokha kusenesikhathi okusho ukuthi inani lentengo yokuthenga selishintshile laba ngama-ruble ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-5,9.

NgoMashi 2011 kwaqalwa inqubo yobugebengu ebhekene neLisin ngezinsolo zenkohliso njengengxenye yokuthengiselana ngezabelo ne-NLMK kanye nokusolwa kokwenza kabi inkantolo ye-Arbitration kuleli cala elibhekene ne-NLMK. Kodwa-ke, izikhalazo aziholelanga ekushushisweni kobugebengu.

Inkantolo ye-Arbitration, lapho icala phakathi kweLisin ne-NLMK lidingidwe khona, igwebe i-NLMK ukuthi ikhokhe inani elisele lokuthengwa kwama-ruble ayi-8,9 futhi yenqabe zombili lezi zimangalo zangempela. Intengo yokuthenga ibalwa ngokulandelayo ngokususelwa engxenyeni yentengo ethengiwe yiLisin (ama-ruble ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-22,1) kanye nenani elibaliwe yi-NLMK (ruble le-1,4 billion). Mayelana nenkokhelo esezingeni eliphakeme inkantolo igwebe i-NLMK ukuthi ikhokhe ama-ruble ayi-8,9 billion. Isicelo sokuphikisana nesinqumo senkantolo ye-Arbitration asikwazi futhi i-NLMK isimanga, ngokususelwa ezinsolweni zangaphambilini zokukhwabanisa okwenziwe uLisin, ekubhujisweni komklomelo wokuphikisana okwenziwe yiNkantolo yase-Arbitrazh yedolobha laseMoscow. Lowo mbango unikezwe kanti umklomelo wokulamula uzobhujiswa.

ILisin ngeke iyimele futhi ifuna ukulandela umyalo wokugcina kumasheya aphethwe yi-NLMK enhlokodolobha yayo yeNLMK International BV e-Amsterdam. Ukubhujiswa kwalesi sinqumo sekwenze ukuthi kube nzima ukulandela i-oda yokulondolozwa eRussia. Ngakho-ke, isicelo seLisin sokuqashelwa nokuqinisekiswa komklomelo wokulamula. Isicelo sakhe senqatshiwe. Ngokuya ngomhlangano waseNew York kujwayelekile ukuthi kubaphathi abanezikhundla ezweni labo inqubo yokwahlulela isuselwe (kule nkantolo izinkantolo ezijwayelekile zaseRussia) ukunquma ngaphakathi komthetho kazwelonke, mayelana nokuchithwa kwemiklomelo ye-Arbitration. Empeleni, inkantolo yokuphoqelelwa ayivunyelwe ukuhlola le miklomelo ye-Arbitration. INkantolo ku-Interlocutory Proceedings ibheka ukuthi umklomelo wokulamula awukwazi ukwenziwa, ngoba awusekho.

ILisin yafaka isikhalo esiphikisana nalesi sinqumo eNkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala e-Amsterdam. Inkantolo ibheka ukuthi ngokomthetho umklomelo wokulamula obekelwe ukubekelwa imvamisa ngeke ungacabangi nganoma yikuphi ukuqashelwa nokuphoqelelwa ngaphandle kokuthi kuyicala elikhethekile. Kunecala elihlukile uma kunezinkomba eziqinile zokuthi isahlulelo sezinkantolo zaseRussia sineziphene ezibalulekile, ukuze lokhu kungathathwa njengecala elifanele. Inkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala i-Amsterdam ayibheki leli cala elithile njengehlukile.

ILisin yafaka isikhalazo ngokuxwaya lesi sinqumo. Ngokuya kweLisin inkantolo ibuye yehluleka wukubonga amandla aqukethe izinkantolo anikezwe inkantolo ngokususelwa kunqaku V (1) (e) obheka ukuthi uma isinqumo sokonakala kwangaphandle singayekelela inqubo yokuphoqelelwa komklomelo wokulamula eNetherlands. UMkhandlu oPhezulu uqhathanise inguqulo yangempela yesiNgisi neFrance yombhalo weSivumelwano. Zombili lezi zinguqulo zibonakala zinencazelo ehlukile maqondana namandla wokuzikhethela anikezwe inkantolo. Uhlobo lwesiNgisi lwenqaku V (1) (e) lisho okulandelayo:

  1. Ukuqashelwa nokuqashwa komklomelo kungenqatshwa, ngesicelo seqembu elicelwe kuye, kuphela uma lelo qembu linikezela kwigunya elinolwazi lapho kufuna ukuqashelwa kanye nokuphoqelelwa, ubufakazi bokuthi:

(...)

  1. e) Umklomelo awukabi ngesibopho emaqenjini, noma ubekelwe eceleni noma kumiswe yisiphathimandla sezwe lelo, noma ngaphansi komthetho, lapho lowo mklomelo wenziwa khona. ”

Uhlobo lwaseFrance lwendatshana V (1) (e) lubeka okulandelayo:

"1. I-La reconnaissance et l'exécution de la phrase ne-seront Refusées, e funa la de la partie contre laquelle elle est invoquée, que si cette partie fournit à l'autorité compétente du pays où la reconnaissance et l'exécution sont mahitajies la preuve:

(...)

  1. e) Isigwebo esidluliselwe lapho kwenziwa izinhlangano zentela zethula izinhlangano ezizisebenzelayo ukuthi zihambise izinhlaka zempesheni, zisuse umusho lapho zisebenza khona. ”

Amandla wokuqamba wenguqulo yesiNgisi ('kungenzeka wenqatshwe') abonakala ebanzi kune-French version ('ne seront refusées que si'). UMkhandlu oPhezulu uthole izincazelo eziningi ezahlukile kwezinye izinsizakusebenza ngokusetshenziswa kwesicelo esifanele somhlangano.

UMkhandlu oPhezulu uzama ukucacisa izincazelo ezihlukile ngokungeza ukutolika kwazo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi amandla okubusa angasebenza kuphela uma kunesizathu sokwenqatshwa ngokuya ngeSivumelwano. Kulesi simo bekucishe kube yisizathu sokwenqaba okubhekisele 'ekubhujisweni komklomelo we-Arbitration'. KuseLisin ukufakazela ngokusekelwe emaqinisweni nasezimweni lapho umhlabathi wokwenqaba awunasisekelo.

UMkhandlu oPhezulu uhlanganyela ngokuphelele umbono weNkantolo Yezikhalazo. Kungaba khona kuphela icala elikhethekile ngokusho kweNkantolo eNkulu lapho ukubhujiswa komklomelo wokulamula kususelwa kwizizathu ezingahambelani nezizathu zokwenqatshwa kwendatshana V (1). Yize inkantolo yaseDashi inikezwa amandla okubonelela uma kungenzeka yamukelwa futhi yaqiniswa, yona ayisafaki isahlulelo sokubhujiswa kuleli cala. Ukuphikisa okwenziwe uLisin akunathuba lokuphumelela.

Lesi sinqumo soMkhandlu Ophakeme sinikeza ukucaciswa okusobala ukuthi yiphi indlela i-V (1) yomhlangano waseNew York okufanele ihunyushwe ngayo uma kwenzeka amandla okubandlulula anikezwe inkantolo ngesikhathi sokwamukelwa nokuqinisekiswa kwesinqumo sokubhujiswa. Lokhu kusho, ngamafuphi, ukuthi ezimeni ezithile kuphela ukubhujiswa kwesahlulelo kungabhalwa ngaphezulu.

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