I-UBO-irejista: ukwesaba wonke ama-UBO?

1. Isingeniso

NgoMeyi 20, 2015 iPalamende YaseYurophu yamukela Umhlahlandlela Wesine Wokulawula Imali. Ngokwesisekelo salo Directive, wonke amazwe angamalungu anesibopho sokusungula irejista ye-UBO. Zonke i-UBO zenkampani kufanele zifakwe kwirejista. Njengoba i-UBO izokwazi ukuthola umuntu ngamunye wemvelo ophethe ngokuqondile noma ngokungaqondile okungaphezulu kwama-25% wenzalo (yokwabelana) yenkampani, engeyona inkampani ebhalwe emakethe yesitoko. Uma kwenzeka wehluleka ukusungula i-UBO (s), inketho yokugcina kungaba ukucabanga ngomuntu ovela kwizisebenzi eziphakeme zenkampani ukuze abe-UBO. ENetherlands, irejista ye-UBO kufanele ifakwe ngaphambi kukaJuni 26, 2017. Ukulindela ukuthi irejista izoletha imiphumela eminingi yesimo sebhizinisi saseDashi naseYurophu. Lapho umuntu angafuni ukumangala ngokungathandeki, isithombe esicacile sezinguquko ezizayo sizoba kubalulekile. Ngakho-ke, lo mbhalo uzozama ukucacisa umqondo werejista ye-UBO ngokuhlaziya izici zayo kanye nemiphumela.

2. Umqondo waseYurophu

I-Fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive ingumkhiqizo wokwenza iYurophu. Umqondo ngemuva kokwethulwa kwalesi siqondisi ukuthi iYurophu ifuna ukuvimba abakhwabanisi imali nabaxhasi bemali yamaphekula ekusebenziseni ukuhamba kwamakhulu kwenkululeko yenkululeko nenkululeko yokuhlinzeka ngezinsizakalo zezezimali ngezinhloso zabo zobugebengu. Ngokuhambisana nalokhu isifiso sokuthola ukuthi bangobani bonke abakwa-UBO, ukuba ngabantu abanesilinganiso esithile segunya. Ubhaliso lwe-UBO lwakha ingxenye nje yezinguquko ezilethwe yi-Fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive ekufezeni injongo yalo.

Njengoba kushiwo, i-Directive kufanele isetshenziswe ngaphambi kukaJuni 26, 2017. Ngokwesimo serejista ye-UBO, iDirective ibeka uhlaka olucacile. I-Directive icindezela amazwe angamalungu ukuba alethe izinhlaka eziningi zomthetho ngangokunokwenzeka emkhawulweni womthetho. Ngokusho kwe-Directive, izinhlobo ezintathu zeziphathimandla kumele zikwazi ukufinyelela imininingwane ye-UBO kunoma yisiphi isimo: Iziphathimandla ezinekhono (kufaka phakathi abaphathi) kanye nawo wonke ama-Intelligence Units wezezimali, iziphathimandla eziphoqelekile (kufaka phakathi izikhungo zezezimali, izikhungo zezikweletu, abacwaningi mabhuku, abasebenza ngokuthengisa izivumelwano, abadayisi kanye nabahlinzeki bemisebenzi yokugembula) nabo bonke abantu noma izinhlangano ezingakhombisa intshisekelo esemthethweni. Amazwe angamalungu akhululekile ukukhetha irejista yomphakathi ngokuphelele. Igama elithi "iziphathimandla ezinekhono" alichazwa kabanzi ku-Directive. Ngaleso sizathu, iKhomishini yaseYurophu icele ukucaciswa ngokuchitshiyelwa kwayo okuhlongozwayo kwi-Directive kaJulayi 5, 2016.

Inani lemininingwane emincane okufanele ifakwe kwirejista yilokhu okulandelayo: igama eliphelele, inyanga yokuzalwa, unyaka wokuzalwa, ubuzwe, izwe lokuhlala kanye nohlobo nobungako bentshisekelo yezomnotho ephethwe yi-UBO. Ngaphezu kwalokho, incazelo yegama elithi “UBO” ibanzi kakhulu. Leli gama alihlanganisi kuphela ukuqondisa okuqondile (ngesisekelo sobunikazi) sama-25% noma ngaphezulu, kodwa futhi nokulawula okungaqondile okungaphezulu kwama-25%. Ukulawulwa okungaqondile kusho ukulawulwa nganoma iyiphi enye indlela ngaphandle kobunikazi. Lokhu kulawulwa kungasuselwa kumbandela wokulawula esivumelwaneni sabaninimasheya, amandla okuba nomthelela osekude enkampanini noma kwikhono, ngokwesibonelo, ukuqoka abaqondisi.

3. Irejista eNetherlands

Uhlaka lwamaDashi lokuqalisa ukusebenza komthetho kwirejista ye-UBO luchazwe kakhulu encwadini eya kuNgqongqoshe uDijsselbloem yangoFebhuwari 10, 2016. Mayelana nezinhlaka ezimbozwe ngesidingo sokubhaliswa, le ncwadi ikhombisa ukuthi cishe azikho nhlobo izinhlobo ezikhona zamaDashi izinhlaka zizohlala zingakaze zithintwe, ngaphandle kobunikazi bodwa nawo wonke amabhizinisi kahulumeni. Izinkampani ezifakwe ohlwini azikhishwa. Ngokungafani nemikhakha emithathu yabantu neziphathimandla ezinelungelo lokuhlola imininingwane kwirejista njengoba ikhethwe ezingeni laseYurophu, INetherlands likhetha irejista yomphakathi. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi i-registry ekhawulelwe ifaka ukungaphatheki kahle ngokuya ngezindleko, amandla kanye nokuqinisekiseka. Njengoba irejista izokuba sesidlangalaleni, kuzokwakhiwa izivikelo ezine zobumfihlo ku:

3.1. Wonke umsebenzisi wolwazi uzobhaliswa.

3.2. Ukutholakala kolwazi akunikezwa mahhala.

3.3. Abasebenzisi ngaphandle kweziphathimandla ezikhethiwe (iziphathimandla ezifaka phakathi kwezinye iBhange LaseDashi, i-Authority Financial Markets kanye neHhovisi Lezokuphatha Ezezimali) nePhiko Lobuhlakani Bezezimali laseDashi bazokwazi ukufinyelela kusethi yedatha ekhawulelwe.

3.4. Uma ubhekene nengozi yokuthumba, ukuphanga, udlame noma ukusatshiswa, kuzolandelwa ukuhlolwa kwengozi yecala ngalinye, lapho kuzohlolwa khona ukuthi ngabe ukufinyeleleka kwemininingwane ethile kungenzeka kuvaliwe yini uma kunesidingo.

Abasebenzisi ngaphandle kweziphathimandla ezikhethiwe kanye ne-AFM bangafinyelela kulolu lwazi olulandelayo: igama, inyanga yokuzalwa, ubuzwe, izwe lokuhlala kanye nohlobo nobungako bentshisekelo yezomnotho ephethwe ngumnikazi onenzuzo. Lokhu okuncane kusho ukuthi akuzona zonke izikhungo okufanele zenze ucwaningo oluphoqelekile lwe-UBO ezingathola lonke imininingwane yazo edingekayo ebhukwini. Kuzofanele baqoqe lolu lwazi ngokwabo futhi balondoloze lolu lwazi ekuphathweni kwabo.

Ngokunikezwa iqiniso lokuthi iziphathimandla ezikhethiwe ne-FIU zinendima ethile yokuphenya kanye nokuqondisa, bazokwazi ukuthola imininingwane eyengeziwe: (1) usuku, indawo nezwe lokuzalwa, (2) ikheli, (3) inombolo yenkonzo yezakhamizi kanye / noma inombolo kamazisi yentela yakwelinye izwe (i-TIN), (4) uhlobo, inombolo nosuku nendawo okukhishwe ngalo umazisi noma ikhophi yalowo mbhalo kanye (5) nemibhalo egcizelela ukuthi kungani umuntu enesimo ye-UBO nosayizi ofanayo (wezomnotho) ohambelana nawo.

Okulindelwe ukuthi iChamber of Commerce izophatha irejista. Imininingwane izofinyelela kwirejista ngokuthumela imininingwane yizinkampani nezinhlangano zomthetho uqobo. I-UBO angeke yenqabe ukubamba iqhaza ekuletheni lolu lwazi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, iziphathimandla eziphoqelekile nazo, ngomqondo othile, zizoba nomsebenzi wokuphoqelela: zinesibopho sokuxhumana nobhaliso lonke ulwazi olusezandleni zalo, oluhlukile kwirejista. Iziphathimandla eziphathiswe imithwalo yemfanelo endaweni yokulwa nokuqothuka kwemali, ezezimali zamaphekula kanye nezinye izinhlobo zobugebengu bezimali nezomnotho, ngokuya ngosayizi womsebenzi wazo, zizoba nelungelo noma zizodingeka ukuthi zilethe imininingwane ehlukile kwirejista. Akukacaci okwamanje ukuthi ngubani ozophatha ngokusemthethweni umsebenzi wokuphoqelela maqondana nokulethwa (okuyikho) kokwethula imininingwane ye-UBO nokuthi ngubani (mhlawumbe) onelungelo lokukhokha inhlawulo.

4. Uhlelo olungenamaphutha?

Ngaphandle kwezidingo eziqinile, umthetho we-UBO awubonakali njengokungenamanzi kuzo zonke izici. Kunezindlela eziningi umuntu angaqinisekisa ukuthi eyodwa iwela ngaphandle kwesilinganiselo serejista ye-UBO.

4.1. Isibalo sokuthembana
Umuntu angakhetha ukusebenza ngesibalo sokuthenjwa. Amanani wokwethenjwa angaphansi kwemithetho ehlukene ngaphansi komyalelo. Umyalelo udinga irejista yezibalo zokuthenjwa. Le rejista ethize, noma kunjalo, ngeke ivulelwe umphakathi. Ngale ndlela, ukungaziwa kwabantu ngemuva kwethrasti kuhlala kuvikelekile kuze kube lapho. Izibonelo zezibalo zokuthenjwa ukwethenjwa kwama-Anglo-America kanye ne-Curaçao trust. UBonaire naye uyazi isithombe esingaqhathaniswa nokuthenjwa: i-DPF. Lolu uhlobo oluthile lwesisekelo, oluthi, ngokungafani nokwethenjwa, olunobuntu obungokomthetho. Ilawulwa ngumthetho we-BES.

4.2. Ukudluliselwa kwesihlalo
I-Fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive ikhuluma ngokulandelayo mayelana nokusebenza kwayo: "… izinkampani nezinye izinhlaka zomthetho ezisungulwe ezindaweni zabo". Lesi sigwebo sisho ukuthi izinkampani, ezisungulwe ngaphandle kwendawo yamazwe angamalungu, kepha kamuva zihambise izihlalo zenkampani yazo ezweni elingamalungu, azimbozwa ngumthetho. Isibonelo, umuntu angacabanga ngemiqondo yezomthetho edumile efana neJersey Ltd., iBES BV neAmerican Inc. A DPF nayo inganquma ukuhambisa isihlalo sayo uqobo eNetherlands futhi iqhubeke nokwenza imisebenzi njenge-DPF.

5. Izinguquko ezizayo?

Umbuzo uthi ngabe i-European Union izofuna ukuqhubekisela phambili yini amathuba okungenhla okugwemayo umthetho we-UBO. Kodwa-ke, okwamanje azikho izinkomba zokhonkolo zokuthi izinguquko zizokwenzeka kuleli phuzu esikhathini esifushane. Esiphakamisweni sakhe esethulwe ngoJulayi 5, i-European Commission icele izinguquko ezimbalwa ku-Directive. Lesi siphakamiso asifakwanga izinguquko eziphathelene nalokhu okwandulele. Ngaphezu kwalokho, akukacaci noma ngabe izinguquko ezihlongozwayo zizosetshenziswa ngempela yini. Noma kunjalo, ngeke kube kubi ukubheka izinguquko ezihlongozwayo kanye nokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi ezinye izinguquko zenziwe ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Izinguquko ezine ezinkulu njengoba kuhlongozwayo njengamanje zimi ngokulandelayo:

5.1. Ikhomishini ihlongoza ukwenza ukuthi irejista ibe semphakathini ngokuphelele. Lokhu kusho ukuthi inkombandlela izoguqulwa endaweni yokungena kwabantu nezinhlangano ezingakhombisa intshisekelo esemthethweni. Lapho ukufinyelela kwabo bekungakhawulelwa khona kwimininingwane emincane ebalulwe ngaphambili, irejista manje izokwaziswa ngokugcwele nabo.

5.2. Ikhomishini ihlongoza ukucacisa igama elithi "abaphathi abanekhono" ngale ndlela elandelayo: ".. lezo zikhulu zomphakathi ezinezibopho eziqokiwe zokulwa nokuqoqwa kwemali noma kwezimali zamaphekula, kufaka phakathi abaphathi bezintela nabaphathi abanomsebenzi wokuphenya noma wokushushisa ukuxhaphaza imali, amacala ahambisana nalawo. kanye nokuxhaswa ngezimali kwamaphekula, ukulandela nokubamba noma ukuqeda kanye nokuthumba impahla yobugebengu ”.

5.3. IKhomishini icela ukungafihli okukhulu nokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi kukhonjwe ama-UBO ngokuxhumana kuwo wonke amarejista kazwelonke amazwe angamalungu.

5.4. Ikhomishini iphinde ihlongoze ukuthi, kwezinye izikhathi, yehlise inani le-UBO lama-25% laya ku-10%. Lokhu kuzoba njalo lapho izinhlaka zezomthetho ziyinhlangano engenzi ngezimali evele nje. Lezi "izikhungo eziPhakathi nendawo ezingenawo umsebenzi wezomnotho futhi zisebenza kuphela ukuhambisa kude abanikazi abazuzisayo ezimpahleni".

5.5. Ikhomishini iphakamisa ukuthi kuguqulwe umnqamulajuqu wokuqalisa ukusebenza kusuka ngoJuni 26, 2017 kuya kuJanuwari 1, 2017.

Isiphetho

Ukwethulwa kwerejista yomphakathi ye-UBO kuzoba nemiphumela efinyelela kude kumabhizinisi emazweni angamalungu. Abantu ngokuqondile noma ngokungaqondile abanayo ngaphezulu kokuthi ama-25% wenzalo (yokwabelana) yenkampani engeyona inkampani efakwe kuhlu, bazophoqeleka ukuthi benze imihlatshelo eminingi endaweni yobumfihlo, bandisa ubungozi bokuthumba; yize iqiniso ukuthi iNetherlands ikhombisile ukuthi izokwenza konke okusemandleni ukunciphisa lezi zingozi ngangokunokwenzeka. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ezinye izimo zizothola izibopho ezinkulu maqondana nokuqashelwa kanye nokudluliswa kwemininingwane eyehlukile kunolwazi olukurejista ye-UBO. Ukwethulwa kwerejista ye-UBO kungasho ukuthi umuntu uzodlula egxile kwisibalo sokwethenjwa, noma isikhungo sezomthetho esisungulwe ngaphandle kwamazwe angamalungu angabe esedlulisela esihlalweni sawo sangempela ezweni elilungu. Akuqiniseki ukuthi lezi zinhlaka zizohlala zikwazi yini ukusebenza esikhathini esizayo. Ukuchitshiyelwa okwenziwe njengamanje kwe-Fourth Ani-Money Laundering Directive akusenalo ushintsho okwamanje. ENetherlands, umuntu kufanele acabangele isiphakamiso sokuxhunyaniswa kwamarejista kazwelonke, ushintsho olungaba khona emaphathini angama-25% nosuku lokuqala kokuqalisa.

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