Yini okufanele uyenze uma kwenzeka isampula yomsindo engagunyaziwe?

Yini okufanele uyenze uma kwenzeka isampula yomsindo engagunyaziwe?

Ukusampula komsindo noma ukusampula komculo kuyindlela esetshenziswa kabanzi njengamanje lapho izingcezwana zomsindo zikopishwa nge-elekthronikhi ukuze zisetshenziswe, ngokuvamile zisesimweni esishintshiwe, emsebenzini omusha (womculo), ngokuvamile ngosizo lwekhompyutha. Kodwa-ke, izingcezu zomsindo zingase zibe ngaphansi kwamalungelo ahlukahlukene, ngenxa yalokho ukusampula okungagunyaziwe kungase kube okungekho emthethweni.

Ukusampula kusebenzisa izingcezu zomsindo ezikhona. Ukuqanjwa, izingoma, ukusebenza nokuqoshwa kwalezi zingcezu zomsindo kungase kube ngaphansi kwelungelo lobunikazi. Ukwakhiwa kanye nezinhlamvu zamagama kungavikelwa yi-copyright. Ukusebenza (okurekhodiwe) kungavikelwa ilungelo elihlobene lomdlali, futhi iphonogram (okurekhodiwe) ingavikelwa ilungelo elihlobene lomkhiqizi wephonogram. I-Athikili 2 ye-EU Copyright Directive (2001/29) inika umbhali, umenzi, kanye nomkhiqizi wephonogram ilungelo elikhethekile lokukhiqiza kabusha, elehlela nelungelo lokugunyaza noma lokwenqabela ukukhiqizwa kabusha 'kwento' evikelwe. Umbhali angaba umqambi kanye/noma umbhali wamagama, abaculi kanye/noma abaculi ngokuvamile bangabaculi abaculayo (I-athikili 1 ngaphansi koMthetho Wamalungelo Omakhelwane (NRA)) futhi umdidiyeli wegilamafoni ngumuntu oqopha okokuqala. , noma yenze futhi inengozi yezezimali (I-athikili 1 ngaphansi kwe-NRA). Uma umculi ebhala, ecula, eqopha, futhi ekhipha izingoma zakhe ngaphansi kwabaphathi bakhe, la maqembu ahlukene ahlangene abe ngumuntu oyedwa. I-copyright namalungelo ahambisana nawo-ke asezandleni zomuntu oyedwa.

Yini okufanele uyenze uma kwenzeka isampula yomsindo engagunyaziwe?

E-Netherlands, I-Copyright Directive iye yasetshenziswa ku-Copyright Act (CA) kanye ne-NRA, phakathi kwezinye izinto. Isigaba 1 se-CA sivikela ilungelo lombhali lokukhiqiza kabusha. Umthetho Wokukopisha usebenzisa igama elithi 'ukukhiqiza kabusha' kunokuthi 'ukukopisha', kodwa empeleni, womabili la magama ayefana. Ilungelo lokukhiqiza kabusha leciko eliculayo kanye nomdidiyeli wephonogram livikelwe Izigaba 2 no-6, ngokulandelana kwazo, ze-NRA. Njengomyalelo Welungelo Lobunikazi, lezi zinhlinzeko azichazi ukuthi yini ehlanganisa ukukhiqizwa kabusha (okugcwele noma ingxenye). Ngendlela yokufanekisa: Isigaba 13 soMthetho we-Copyright sinikeza lokho ”noma yikuphi ukucubungula okuphelele noma ingxenye noma ukulingisa ngendlela eshintshiwe” kwakha ukukhiqizwa kabusha. Ngakho-ke ukukhiqizwa kabusha kufaka phakathi ikhophi engaphezu kuka-1-on-1, kodwa akucaci ukuthi iyiphi indinganiso okufanele isetshenziselwe ukuhlola izimo zemingcele. Lokhu kungabi bikho kokucaca kube nomthelela ekusebenzeni kwesampula yomsindo isikhathi eside. Abaculi abayisampula bebengazi ukuthi amalungelo abo ephulwa nini.

Ngo-2019, iNkantolo Yezobulungiswa ye-European Union (CJEU) yacacisa lokhu ngokwengxenye IPelham ukwahlulela, kulandela imibuzo yokuqala ephakanyiswe yi-German Bundesgerichtshof (BGH) (CJEU 29 July 2019, C-476/17, ECLI:EU:C:2019:624). I-CJEU ithole, phakathi kokunye, ukuthi isampula ingaba ukukhiqizwa kabusha kwephonogram, kungakhathaliseki ubude besampula (iphara. 29). Ngakho-ke, isampula yesibili ingase futhi ihlanganise ukwephulwa komthetho. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kwanqunywa ukuthi "lapho, lapho esebenzisa inkululeko yakhe yokukhuluma, umsebenzisi ebhala ucezu lomsindo efonogram ukuze lusetshenziswe emsebenzini omusha, ngendlela eshintshiwe engabonakali endlebeni, ukusetshenziswa okunjalo kufanele kuthathwe njengokungahlanganisi 'ukukhiqiza kabusha' ngokwencazelo ye-athikili 2(c) yoMyalelo 2001/29′ (isigaba 31, ingxenye esebenzayo ngaphansi koku-1). Ngakho-ke, uma isampula ihlelwe ngendlela yokuthi ucezu lomsindo oluthathwe ekuqaleni lungasakwazi ukuzwakala endlebeni, akukho mbuzo wokukhiqizwa kabusha kwephonogram. Uma kunjalo, imvume yesampula yomsindo evela kubanikazi bamalungelo abafanelekile ayidingekile. Ngemuva kokudluliselwa emuva ku-CJEU, i-BGH yakhipha isinqumo ngomhla zingama-30 kuMbasa wezi-2020 I-Metall noma i-Metall IV, lapho icacise khona indlebe okufanele isampuli ingabonakali: indlebe yomlaleli ovamile womculo (BGH 30 April 2020, I ZR 115/16 (I-Metall noma i-Metall IV), para. 29). Nakuba izahlulelo ze-ECJ kanye ne-BGH zithinta ilungelo elihlobene lomkhiqizi wephonogram, kuyaqondakala ukuthi umbandela owenziwe kulezi zahlulelo nawo uyasebenza ekwephuleni umthetho ngokuthathwa kwesampula okuzwakalayo kwelungelo lokushicilela lomdlali kanye nelungelo elihlobene. Ilungelo lobunikazi kanye namalungelo ahlobene omdlali anomkhawulo wokuvikela ophezulu ukuze isikhalazo selungelo elihlobene lomkhiqizi wephonogram, empeleni, sibe yimpumelelo enkulu esimweni sezinsolo zokwephulwa kwesampula elizwakalayo. Ukuze uthole ukuvikelwa kwe-copyright, isibonelo, isiqeshana somsindo kufanele sifaneleke 'njengendalo ehlakaniphile'. Asikho isidingo sokuvikela esinjalo sokuvikelwa kwamalungelo angomakhelwane womkhiqizi wephonogram.

Ngokomthetho, kungukuphulwa kwelungelo lokukhiqiza uma othile Amasampuli a kuzwakale ngendlela ebonakala kumlaleli womculo ojwayelekile. Nokho, i-Athikili 5 yoMyalelo we-Copyright iqukethe imikhawulo embalwa kanye nokuhlukile kwelungelo lokukhiqiza kabusha eliku-Athikili 2 yoMyalelo we-Copyright, okuhlanganisa okuhlukile kwekhwothi kanye nokuhlukile kwe-parody. Amasampuli omsindo esimweni sokuthengisa esivamile ngokuvamile ngeke ahlanganiswe yilokhu, ngenxa yezidingo eziqinile zomthetho.

Umuntu ozithola esesimweni lapho izingcezu zomsindo wakhe zithathwa njengesampula kufanele azibuze lo mbuzo olandelayo:

  • Ingabe umuntu othatha isampula unayo imvume yokwenza lokho kubanikazi bamalungelo abafanele?
  • Ingabe isampula lihleliwe ukuze lingabonakali kumlaleli ovamile womculo?
  • Ingabe isampula liwela ngaphansi kwanoma yikuphi okuhlukile noma imikhawulo?

Uma kunezinsolo zokwephulwa komthetho, izinyathelo zingathathwa ngalezi zindlela ezilandelayo:

  • Thumela incwadi yamasamanisi ukuze umise ukwephulwa komthetho.
    • Isinyathelo sokuqala esiphusile uma ufuna ukuphulwa komthetho kuphele ngokushesha okukhulu. Ikakhulukazi uma ungabheki umonakalo kodwa ufuna nje ukuthi ukwephulwa komthetho kuphele.
  • Xoxisana nomsolwa ophule umthetho ukuze Kucacile isampula.
    • Kungenzeka ukuthi lowo osolwa ngokuphula umthetho akazange aphule ngamabomu, noma okungenani ngaphandle kokucabanga kabili, ephule amalungelo omunye. Kuleso simo, lowo osolwa ngokuphula umthetho angamangalelwa futhi abekwe kwacaca ukuthi ukwephulwa komthetho kwenzeke. Ukusuka lapho, izimo zingaxoxisana ukuze kunikezwe imvume umnikazi wamalungelo ukuze enze isampula. Isibonelo, ubunikazi, inkokhelo efanelekile, noma izinzuzo zingafunwa umnikazi wamalungelo. Le nqubo yokunikeza nokuthola imvume yokwenza isampula nayo ibizwa ngokuthi imvume. Esikhathini esivamile sezehlakalo, le nqubo yenzeka ngaphambi kokuthi kwenzeke noma yikuphi ukwephulwa komthetho.
  • Ukuqala enkantolo icala lokwephula umthetho.
    • Isimangalo singathunyelwa enkantolo ngokusekelwe ekwephuleni ilungelo lobunikazi noma amalungelo ahlobene. Ngokwesibonelo, kungase kuthiwe elinye iqembu lenze okuphambene nomthetho ngokwephula (I-athikili 3:302 ye-Dutch Civil Code), umonakalo ungafunwa (I-athikili 27 ye-CA, i-Article 16 isigaba 1 se-NRA) kanye nenzuzo ingase inikezwe (I-athikili 27a ye-CA, Isigaba 16 isigaba 2 se-NRA).

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